D water. Six animals were randomly assigned to each treatment group

D water. Six animals were randomly assigned to each treatment group and administered 25 mg/kg PQ7 via intraperitoneal (IP) injection. At 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours post injection, all NHS-Biotin organs were harvested from animals euthanized by carbon dioxide inhalation. A colony of FVB-TgN(MMTV-PyVT) transgenic mice (The Jackson Laboratory, Bar order Calyculin A Harbor, ME) was established for mammary carcinoma studies. To identify transgenic progeny, genomic DNA was extracted from a 1.5-cm tail clipping. All mice carrying the PyVT transgene developed mammary tumors. Tumor development of positive female mice was closely monitored every 2? days. Tumor onset was recorded as the age of the animal at which palpable abnormal masses were detected. Tumor size was measured in two dimensions with calipers every 2 days as early as 5 weeks of age. Tumor volume was determined by the equation: Volume = ?Length) *(Width)2. Mice were observed for any change in behavior, appearance, and weight. When animals reached a specific age range, six animals were randomly assigned to each treatment group and administered 25 mg/kg PQ7 via IP injection. Animal care and use protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas following NIH guidelines.Materials and MethodsEthics StatementHusbandry of animals was conducted by the Comparative Medical Group (CMG) at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University. The CMG animal facilities are fully accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, International (AAALAC). The compliance to aspects of animal welfare law wasPQ7 distribution studies in mice (HPLC and Mass Spectrometry)Extraction of PQ7 from organs and plasma. Organs were cut into small pieces followed by the addition of 4 mL of deionized water and 10 mL of a solution of 9:1 ratio of ethyl acetate and 1propanol. Plasma samples were directly mixed with 4 mL of water and 10 mL of a 9:1 solution of ethyl acetate and 1-propanol. Tissue and plasma solutions were separately sonicated for 40 minutes and 10 minutes, respectively, and the organic layer was separated from a separatory funnel. The aqueous layerThe effect of PQ7 on mammary carcinomawas extracted twice with 10 mL of a 9:1 solution of ethyl acetate and 1-propanol. The organic layers were combined, washed with 5 mL of brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, and concentrated to dryness on a rotary evaporator. The residue was diluted with 1 mL of 1-propanol and filtered through a 0.2 filter disc (PTFE 0.2 , Fisherbrand) and analyzed using HPLC and mass spectrometry as described below. Quantification of PQ7 using HPLC. HPLC analysis was carried out on a Varian Prostar 210 with a UV is detector and a reverse phase column (250 x 21.20 mm, 10 micron, Phenomenex, S. No: 552581-1). A flow rate of 5 mL/min and detection wavelength of 254 nm were used. A gradient elution of solvent A, containing deionized water and 0.01 of trifluoroacetic acid, and solvent B, containing acetonitrile and 0.01 of trifluoroacetic acid, was applied for the analysis. 1,2,4,5-Benzenetetracarboxylic acid (BTA) was used 23977191 as an internal standard to quantify the amount of PQ7 in the tissue extracts. Solutions of 100 of various mixtures of authentic PQ7 and BTA were injected into a HPLC instrument, the peak areas corresponding to PQ7 and BTA were integrated from the HPLC chromatogram, and the ratios of the peaks were obtained. Results of the ra.D water. Six animals were randomly assigned to each treatment group and administered 25 mg/kg PQ7 via intraperitoneal (IP) injection. At 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours post injection, all organs were harvested from animals euthanized by carbon dioxide inhalation. A colony of FVB-TgN(MMTV-PyVT) transgenic mice (The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME) was established for mammary carcinoma studies. To identify transgenic progeny, genomic DNA was extracted from a 1.5-cm tail clipping. All mice carrying the PyVT transgene developed mammary tumors. Tumor development of positive female mice was closely monitored every 2? days. Tumor onset was recorded as the age of the animal at which palpable abnormal masses were detected. Tumor size was measured in two dimensions with calipers every 2 days as early as 5 weeks of age. Tumor volume was determined by the equation: Volume = ?Length) *(Width)2. Mice were observed for any change in behavior, appearance, and weight. When animals reached a specific age range, six animals were randomly assigned to each treatment group and administered 25 mg/kg PQ7 via IP injection. Animal care and use protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas following NIH guidelines.Materials and MethodsEthics StatementHusbandry of animals was conducted by the Comparative Medical Group (CMG) at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University. The CMG animal facilities are fully accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, International (AAALAC). The compliance to aspects of animal welfare law wasPQ7 distribution studies in mice (HPLC and Mass Spectrometry)Extraction of PQ7 from organs and plasma. Organs were cut into small pieces followed by the addition of 4 mL of deionized water and 10 mL of a solution of 9:1 ratio of ethyl acetate and 1propanol. Plasma samples were directly mixed with 4 mL of water and 10 mL of a 9:1 solution of ethyl acetate and 1-propanol. Tissue and plasma solutions were separately sonicated for 40 minutes and 10 minutes, respectively, and the organic layer was separated from a separatory funnel. The aqueous layerThe effect of PQ7 on mammary carcinomawas extracted twice with 10 mL of a 9:1 solution of ethyl acetate and 1-propanol. The organic layers were combined, washed with 5 mL of brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, and concentrated to dryness on a rotary evaporator. The residue was diluted with 1 mL of 1-propanol and filtered through a 0.2 filter disc (PTFE 0.2 , Fisherbrand) and analyzed using HPLC and mass spectrometry as described below. Quantification of PQ7 using HPLC. HPLC analysis was carried out on a Varian Prostar 210 with a UV is detector and a reverse phase column (250 x 21.20 mm, 10 micron, Phenomenex, S. No: 552581-1). A flow rate of 5 mL/min and detection wavelength of 254 nm were used. A gradient elution of solvent A, containing deionized water and 0.01 of trifluoroacetic acid, and solvent B, containing acetonitrile and 0.01 of trifluoroacetic acid, was applied for the analysis. 1,2,4,5-Benzenetetracarboxylic acid (BTA) was used 23977191 as an internal standard to quantify the amount of PQ7 in the tissue extracts. Solutions of 100 of various mixtures of authentic PQ7 and BTA were injected into a HPLC instrument, the peak areas corresponding to PQ7 and BTA were integrated from the HPLC chromatogram, and the ratios of the peaks were obtained. Results of the ra.

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