T 4uC with 5 nonfat milk in Tris-buffered saline (25 mM Tris, 137 mM

T 4uC with 5 nonfat milk in Tris-buffered saline (25 mM Tris, 137 mM NaCl, and 2.7 mM KCl) containing 0.05 Tween-20 and then incubated overnight at 4uC with the following primary antibodies: rabbit polyclonal anti-rat NF-kB antibody (Abcam, USA, MedChemExpress SPDB dilution: 1:500), rabbit polyclonal anti-rat SOCS3 antibody (Abcam, USA; dilution: 1:400), rabbit polyclonal anti-rat phospho-JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) antibody (Cell Signaling Technology, USA; dilution: 1:1000), rabbit polyclonal anti-rat phospho-IRS-1 (Ser 307) antibody (Cell Signaling Technology, USA; dilution: 1:1000), rabbit polyclonal anti-rat phospho-Akt (Ser473) antibody (Cell Signaling Technology, USA; dilution: 1:1000) or b-actin (Santa Cruz, USA; dilution: 1:1000). Then the membranes were washed three times in TBS-T and incubated with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody at room temperature. Immunoreactive bands were visualized using an enhanced chemoluminescence and quantified by image analyzer (AlphaImager 2200, USA).Statistical AnalysisData were expressed as the mean6S.D. One-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey ramer post-hoc test was used for statistical comparison among the various treatment groups. Val of SMARTA following Lm-gp61 or LCMV infection is determined within Unpaired t-test was used to compare data between obese fat-fed rats and normalfed rats. P,0.05 was considered statistically significant.Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent 16985061 Assay (ELISA)Serum samples were collected from the rats every two weeks and kept frozen at -80uC until analysis of TNF-a level by a commercially available ELISA kit (Bender MedSystem, Austria, Vienna) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The reaction was terminated by the addition of acid and the absorbance was measured at 450 nm. A standard curve was prepared from seven standard dilutions and serum TNF-a level was determined.Results HLJDT Affects Baseline Measurements for BW, SBP and HRAt baseline, mean BW and SBP were similar between the normal-fed and obese-fed rats (P.0.05). After 16 weeks, the obesefed rats were significantly overweight and had higher SBP (7 and 36 increase, respectively) compared with the normal-fed rats (P,0.05) (Fig. 1). After 12-week treatment with aspirin or HLJDT, BW was markedly reduced by 18 or 17 , 23148522 respectively (Table 3). SBP was reduced by 8 in HLJDT-treated rats but not significantly changed in aspirin-treated rats (Table 3). There was no significant difference in HR among all groups (Table 3).Western Blot AnalysisThe frozen LV tissues were extracted and equal amounts of protein (50 mg) were fractionated on 10 SDS-polyacrylamide gels and then transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. MemTable 2. Primer sequences used in this study.Gene IL-rimer sequence(59 ?9) GTCAACTCCATCTGCCCTTC ACTGGTCTGTTGTGGGTGGTProduct length (bp)Annealing temp(uC)CycleICAM-TTTCGATCTTCCGACTAGGG AGCTTCAGAGGCAGGAAACATNF-aAGTCCGGGCAGGTCTACTTT TGAGCCACAATTCCCTTTCTTGFbGGTCACTTTCACTGGTTGACGA TTGAATATCAAACACGCAAGGCCollagen ITTCACCTACAGCACGCTTGT TTGGGATGGAGGGAGTTTACCollagen IIIGGTCACTTTCACTGGTTGACGA TTGAATATCAAACACGCAAGGCb-actinCGTTGACATCCGTAAAGACC TAGAGCCACCAATCCACACAIL-6: interleukin-6; ICAM-1: intercellular adhesion molecule-1; TNF-a: tumor necrosis factor-alpha; TGFb1: transforming growth factor-beta 1; collagen I/III: collagen types I/III; IKK: IkB kinase. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067530.tHuan-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang for Cardiac Damages in RatsFigure 1. Body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and fasting insuline were measured from 6 weeks to 22 weeks. Note a marked increase of body weight.T 4uC with 5 nonfat milk in Tris-buffered saline (25 mM Tris, 137 mM NaCl, and 2.7 mM KCl) containing 0.05 Tween-20 and then incubated overnight at 4uC with the following primary antibodies: rabbit polyclonal anti-rat NF-kB antibody (Abcam, USA, dilution: 1:500), rabbit polyclonal anti-rat SOCS3 antibody (Abcam, USA; dilution: 1:400), rabbit polyclonal anti-rat phospho-JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) antibody (Cell Signaling Technology, USA; dilution: 1:1000), rabbit polyclonal anti-rat phospho-IRS-1 (Ser 307) antibody (Cell Signaling Technology, USA; dilution: 1:1000), rabbit polyclonal anti-rat phospho-Akt (Ser473) antibody (Cell Signaling Technology, USA; dilution: 1:1000) or b-actin (Santa Cruz, USA; dilution: 1:1000). Then the membranes were washed three times in TBS-T and incubated with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody at room temperature. Immunoreactive bands were visualized using an enhanced chemoluminescence and quantified by image analyzer (AlphaImager 2200, USA).Statistical AnalysisData were expressed as the mean6S.D. One-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey ramer post-hoc test was used for statistical comparison among the various treatment groups. Unpaired t-test was used to compare data between obese fat-fed rats and normalfed rats. P,0.05 was considered statistically significant.Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent 16985061 Assay (ELISA)Serum samples were collected from the rats every two weeks and kept frozen at -80uC until analysis of TNF-a level by a commercially available ELISA kit (Bender MedSystem, Austria, Vienna) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The reaction was terminated by the addition of acid and the absorbance was measured at 450 nm. A standard curve was prepared from seven standard dilutions and serum TNF-a level was determined.Results HLJDT Affects Baseline Measurements for BW, SBP and HRAt baseline, mean BW and SBP were similar between the normal-fed and obese-fed rats (P.0.05). After 16 weeks, the obesefed rats were significantly overweight and had higher SBP (7 and 36 increase, respectively) compared with the normal-fed rats (P,0.05) (Fig. 1). After 12-week treatment with aspirin or HLJDT, BW was markedly reduced by 18 or 17 , 23148522 respectively (Table 3). SBP was reduced by 8 in HLJDT-treated rats but not significantly changed in aspirin-treated rats (Table 3). There was no significant difference in HR among all groups (Table 3).Western Blot AnalysisThe frozen LV tissues were extracted and equal amounts of protein (50 mg) were fractionated on 10 SDS-polyacrylamide gels and then transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. MemTable 2. Primer sequences used in this study.Gene IL-rimer sequence(59 ?9) GTCAACTCCATCTGCCCTTC ACTGGTCTGTTGTGGGTGGTProduct length (bp)Annealing temp(uC)CycleICAM-TTTCGATCTTCCGACTAGGG AGCTTCAGAGGCAGGAAACATNF-aAGTCCGGGCAGGTCTACTTT TGAGCCACAATTCCCTTTCTTGFbGGTCACTTTCACTGGTTGACGA TTGAATATCAAACACGCAAGGCCollagen ITTCACCTACAGCACGCTTGT TTGGGATGGAGGGAGTTTACCollagen IIIGGTCACTTTCACTGGTTGACGA TTGAATATCAAACACGCAAGGCb-actinCGTTGACATCCGTAAAGACC TAGAGCCACCAATCCACACAIL-6: interleukin-6; ICAM-1: intercellular adhesion molecule-1; TNF-a: tumor necrosis factor-alpha; TGFb1: transforming growth factor-beta 1; collagen I/III: collagen types I/III; IKK: IkB kinase. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067530.tHuan-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang for Cardiac Damages in RatsFigure 1. Body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and fasting insuline were measured from 6 weeks to 22 weeks. Note a marked increase of body weight.

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