Te that physical activity is closely related to serum vitamin D

Te that physical activity is closely related to serum POR8 biological activity vitamin D concentrations [25]. The most common cardiac complications observed in our current study were atrial arrhythmias, low cardiac output, and pulmonary edema. The combined incidence of these combined complications was 63 , which is comparable to previously reported cardiac surgery studies [26,27]. In our study low vitamin D concentrations were not associated with increased cardiovascular complications after cardiac surgery. There are multiple potential explanations for our results; first, and perhaps most likely, the difference of our results from previous epidemiological studies suggests the possibility that vitamin D effects are relatively small, at least compared with the intense physiological insult of cardiac surgery. Second, hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass decreases Vitamin D concentrations, although only for about 24 hours, which may not be a clinically important duration ?even in the context of surgical insult [28]. Furthermore our average vitamin D measurement day is 5 days prior surgery, which may have an effect on the results also, but it is very unHomotaurine likely that these patients have had treatment and corrected their vitamin D levels. Third, lack of association may still be related to the limited sample size, although our post hoc analysis suggests that we had sufficient power to observe a clinically important association should one truly exist. And lastly, Vitamin D concentrations in our study ranged between 4.3 and 69 ng/ml. Some newer studies suggest that therapeutic concentrations might have to be greater than 50 ng/ml to significantly improve outcome. Our study is one of the first Vitamin D study in the perioperative patient population. A very recent study contrary to our findings has demonstrated significant U shaped association with vitamin D levels [29]. The difference may have resulted from multiple factors; patient populations, how the outcomes were classified and evaluated but more importantly from the bypass technique. We know that off the pump technique is more often used in Europe then USA, which have significant effect on vitamin D concentrations. Similarly another study in neonates couldn’t demonstrate difference in outcomes other than vasopressor usage [30]. We were unable to demonstrate any difference in vasopressor usage, which may be result of very different patient populations. The closest other comparison might thus be to studies in the critical care populations in whom the association between vitamin D and outcome remains controversial. McKinney et al., for example, demonstrated increased mortality and length of hospital stay in veterans with low concentrations of vitamin D [31]. However, this retrospective analysis had a fairly limited sample size (136 patients), included patients over a long period of time (10 years) and did not adjust for time or center effect. Another study also found a close association with low vitamin D concentrations and increased length of hospital stay and mortality in ICU patients [32]. In contrast, a retrospective ICU study in septic and trauma patients did not identify an association between vitamin D concentrations and outcomes [33]. More importantly, a recent randomized and blinded trial showed no improvement in cardiac dysfunction or left ventricular mass index in high-risk patients with chronic kidney disease who were randomized to vitamin D treatment or placebo [34]. Vitamin D has significant immune mod.Te that physical activity is closely related to serum vitamin D concentrations [25]. The most common cardiac complications observed in our current study were atrial arrhythmias, low cardiac output, and pulmonary edema. The combined incidence of these combined complications was 63 , which is comparable to previously reported cardiac surgery studies [26,27]. In our study low vitamin D concentrations were not associated with increased cardiovascular complications after cardiac surgery. There are multiple potential explanations for our results; first, and perhaps most likely, the difference of our results from previous epidemiological studies suggests the possibility that vitamin D effects are relatively small, at least compared with the intense physiological insult of cardiac surgery. Second, hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass decreases Vitamin D concentrations, although only for about 24 hours, which may not be a clinically important duration ?even in the context of surgical insult [28]. Furthermore our average vitamin D measurement day is 5 days prior surgery, which may have an effect on the results also, but it is very unlikely that these patients have had treatment and corrected their vitamin D levels. Third, lack of association may still be related to the limited sample size, although our post hoc analysis suggests that we had sufficient power to observe a clinically important association should one truly exist. And lastly, Vitamin D concentrations in our study ranged between 4.3 and 69 ng/ml. Some newer studies suggest that therapeutic concentrations might have to be greater than 50 ng/ml to significantly improve outcome. Our study is one of the first Vitamin D study in the perioperative patient population. A very recent study contrary to our findings has demonstrated significant U shaped association with vitamin D levels [29]. The difference may have resulted from multiple factors; patient populations, how the outcomes were classified and evaluated but more importantly from the bypass technique. We know that off the pump technique is more often used in Europe then USA, which have significant effect on vitamin D concentrations. Similarly another study in neonates couldn’t demonstrate difference in outcomes other than vasopressor usage [30]. We were unable to demonstrate any difference in vasopressor usage, which may be result of very different patient populations. The closest other comparison might thus be to studies in the critical care populations in whom the association between vitamin D and outcome remains controversial. McKinney et al., for example, demonstrated increased mortality and length of hospital stay in veterans with low concentrations of vitamin D [31]. However, this retrospective analysis had a fairly limited sample size (136 patients), included patients over a long period of time (10 years) and did not adjust for time or center effect. Another study also found a close association with low vitamin D concentrations and increased length of hospital stay and mortality in ICU patients [32]. In contrast, a retrospective ICU study in septic and trauma patients did not identify an association between vitamin D concentrations and outcomes [33]. More importantly, a recent randomized and blinded trial showed no improvement in cardiac dysfunction or left ventricular mass index in high-risk patients with chronic kidney disease who were randomized to vitamin D treatment or placebo [34]. Vitamin D has significant immune mod.

Leave a Reply