And leg ulceration. Data were analyzed using Stata Statistics Data Analysis

And leg ulceration. Data were analyzed using Stata Title Loaded From File Statistics Data Analysis v10.1 (Statacorp, College Station, Texas).ResultsThere were no differences in the anthropometric variables (age, height, weight, body mass index) and LDH by genotype.As expected, subjects with sickle cell disease had significantly lower haematocrit, haemoglobin concentrations and RBC concentrations but significantly increased leucocyte counts, platelet concentrations and RDW (Table 1). However there was no difference in MCV value between AA and subjects with sickle cell disease. The mean age, weight and BMI of subjects with sickle disease and leg ulcers, SSu, were significantly greater than subjects with sickle cell disease without leg ulcers, SSn. However there was no difference in mean height between the SSn and SSu groups (Table 2). Haematocrit, MCV and RBC counts were significantly lower in the SSu group compared with SSn group. In contrast, there were no significant difference between SSu group and the SSn for other haematological variables and LDH (Table 2). Plasma concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- and IL-1, the adhesion molecule sICAM-1 and the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 were measured in a total of 55 adult subjects with sickle cell disease and 17 haemoglobin AA controls. There were 32 males and 23 females with the SS genotype (median age 32; range 18-55). Of the SS subjects, 24 had an active ulcer (7 females 17 males; median age 36.5; range 21-54) at the time of study (SSu) and 31 (16 females 15 males; median age 32; range 18-55) were asymptomatic, HbSS subjects without ulcers (SSn). Median TNF- (p = 0.001) concentration was significantly increased in the sickle cell disease group. However, there were no differences in ICAM-1, IL-1 and IL-10 concentrations between patients with sickle cell disease and the control group (Table 3). Median TNF- (p = 0.001) concentration was significantly increased in the sickle cell disease group. Of the 24 subjects with active ulcers, TNF- was detectable in 18 and IL-1 was detectable in 14 participants. The frequency of cytokineInflammation and Adhesion in Chronic Leg UlcersTable 2. Anthropometric variables, haematological variables and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations in sickle cell disease patients with chronic leg ulcers and patients without ulcers.Variables Age (yrs) Height (cm) Weight (Kg) Body mass index LDH (IU/L) Hb (g/dL) Hct ( ) RBC (x1012 cells/ ) MCV (fL) MCH (pg) MCHC ( ) Plt (x109/L) WBC (x109/L) RDWSSn (n= 31) 31.6?0.1 162?9.6; 111, 185.7 58.1?0.5; 44, 98.9 23.29?.17; 16.48, 51.75 (n=29)1258.71?31.5; 545, 2129 7.9 (2.1); 6.3, 10.6 24.7 (6.2); 18.9, 32 2.8 (0.7); 1.9, 4.2 87 (6.4); 71.6, 103 28.8(3); 21.7, 34.8 33 (2.5); 21, 37 409 (159); 185, 645 11 (4.6); 5.1, 37.8 21.6 (4.6); 14.5, 33.SSu (n= 24) 38.7?.7* 163.6?3.4; 111, 191.9 63.6?.7; 50, 82.7* 25.0?.44; 17.87, 44.23* (n= 19) 1154.58?61.36;612, 1970 7.6 (2.3); 4.9, 10.4 22.8 (6.6); 15.5, 32.5* 2.5 (0.8); 1.6, 3.8* 91 (7.5); 80.8, 97.4* 29.6 (3.2); 26.2, 34.8 33.2 (2.5); 31.4, 37.2 351.5(156); 246, 746 11.2 (3.9); 7.9, 19.2 23.1 (4.1); 17, 30.Anthropometric and LDH XA-VP16 (A), ADRB2-Cub-LexA-VP16 (B), or HTR1A-Cub-LexAVP16 (C). The control values are mean D; haematological values are median(inter-quartile range) minimum value, maximum value. * significant difference at p<0.05.Table 3. Median inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and adhesion cytokine concentrations in sickle cell disease patients and AA controls.Figure 1. Plasma concentration distributions of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alp.And leg ulceration. Data were analyzed using Stata Statistics Data Analysis v10.1 (Statacorp, College Station, Texas).ResultsThere were no differences in the anthropometric variables (age, height, weight, body mass index) and LDH by genotype.As expected, subjects with sickle cell disease had significantly lower haematocrit, haemoglobin concentrations and RBC concentrations but significantly increased leucocyte counts, platelet concentrations and RDW (Table 1). However there was no difference in MCV value between AA and subjects with sickle cell disease. The mean age, weight and BMI of subjects with sickle disease and leg ulcers, SSu, were significantly greater than subjects with sickle cell disease without leg ulcers, SSn. However there was no difference in mean height between the SSn and SSu groups (Table 2). Haematocrit, MCV and RBC counts were significantly lower in the SSu group compared with SSn group. In contrast, there were no significant difference between SSu group and the SSn for other haematological variables and LDH (Table 2). Plasma concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- and IL-1, the adhesion molecule sICAM-1 and the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 were measured in a total of 55 adult subjects with sickle cell disease and 17 haemoglobin AA controls. There were 32 males and 23 females with the SS genotype (median age 32; range 18-55). Of the SS subjects, 24 had an active ulcer (7 females 17 males; median age 36.5; range 21-54) at the time of study (SSu) and 31 (16 females 15 males; median age 32; range 18-55) were asymptomatic, HbSS subjects without ulcers (SSn). Median TNF- (p = 0.001) concentration was significantly increased in the sickle cell disease group. However, there were no differences in ICAM-1, IL-1 and IL-10 concentrations between patients with sickle cell disease and the control group (Table 3). Median TNF- (p = 0.001) concentration was significantly increased in the sickle cell disease group. Of the 24 subjects with active ulcers, TNF- was detectable in 18 and IL-1 was detectable in 14 participants. The frequency of cytokineInflammation and Adhesion in Chronic Leg UlcersTable 2. Anthropometric variables, haematological variables and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations in sickle cell disease patients with chronic leg ulcers and patients without ulcers.Variables Age (yrs) Height (cm) Weight (Kg) Body mass index LDH (IU/L) Hb (g/dL) Hct ( ) RBC (x1012 cells/ ) MCV (fL) MCH (pg) MCHC ( ) Plt (x109/L) WBC (x109/L) RDWSSn (n= 31) 31.6?0.1 162?9.6; 111, 185.7 58.1?0.5; 44, 98.9 23.29?.17; 16.48, 51.75 (n=29)1258.71?31.5; 545, 2129 7.9 (2.1); 6.3, 10.6 24.7 (6.2); 18.9, 32 2.8 (0.7); 1.9, 4.2 87 (6.4); 71.6, 103 28.8(3); 21.7, 34.8 33 (2.5); 21, 37 409 (159); 185, 645 11 (4.6); 5.1, 37.8 21.6 (4.6); 14.5, 33.SSu (n= 24) 38.7?.7* 163.6?3.4; 111, 191.9 63.6?.7; 50, 82.7* 25.0?.44; 17.87, 44.23* (n= 19) 1154.58?61.36;612, 1970 7.6 (2.3); 4.9, 10.4 22.8 (6.6); 15.5, 32.5* 2.5 (0.8); 1.6, 3.8* 91 (7.5); 80.8, 97.4* 29.6 (3.2); 26.2, 34.8 33.2 (2.5); 31.4, 37.2 351.5(156); 246, 746 11.2 (3.9); 7.9, 19.2 23.1 (4.1); 17, 30.Anthropometric and LDH values are mean D; haematological values are median(inter-quartile range) minimum value, maximum value. * significant difference at p<0.05.Table 3. Median inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and adhesion cytokine concentrations in sickle cell disease patients and AA controls.Figure 1. Plasma concentration distributions of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alp.

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