Nalyzed by ImageJ. All data were analyzed by comparing means with

Nalyzed by ImageJ. All data were analyzed by comparing means with one-way ANOVA method using SPSS (Chicago, IL, USA, version 16.0). Data were shown as mean 6 SEM and P,0.05 denotes statistically significant difference.Results Title Loaded From File Rifampicin Induced PXR Translocation to the NucleusPXR, known as a xenobiotic receptor, is a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor, which forms heterodimers with the nuclear receptor retinoic X receptor (RXR) upon activation by its agonists and subsequently induces its target genes expression. In this experiment, PXR was transiently transfected into HEK293T cells. Twenty-four hour after transfection, cells were incubated with rifampicin or DMSO for another 2 h. Most of the transfected PXR was located in the cytosol in the absence of ligand (Figure 1). Upon rifampicin incubation, PXR translocated to the nucleus (Figure 1).determine whether activation of the human PXR in human liver cells has the same effect, we treated HepG2 cells with rifampicin. Oil red O staining showed lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells after rifampicin incubation (Figure 2A and Figure 2B). Lipid profile analysis showed that the triglyceride level was not changed in the cells (Figure 2C), whereas the total cholesterol level was significantly increased (Figure 2D). However, the free cholesterol level was not changed (Figure 2E), indicating that the cholesterol ester level was induced in HepG2 cells after rifampicin treatment.Rifampicin Affected the Expression of Genes that Impact Lipid HomeostasisThe lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells prompted us to examine the effect of rifampicin on the expression of genes that affect lipid homeostasis. RT-PCR analyses showed that the expression of CD36, a fatty acid translocase that is responsible for the high affinity uptake of fatty acids, was up-regulated (Figure 3A). In mouse models, CD36 has been established as a common target gene of LXR, PXR and PPARc in HDAC-IN-3 supplier promoting steatosis [31]. The expression of ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 1 (ABCG1), a gene involved in cholesterol and phospholipids transport, was also increased (Figure 3A). The expression of PPARc was not affected (Figure 3B), which was different from the results from mice [23,30]. In addition, the expression of twoRifampicin Induced Lipid Accumulation in HepG2 CellsPrevious studies have shown that activation of PXR in mice induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis [23]. In order toSCD1 Contributes to the Lipogenic Effect by PXRFigure 7. SCD1 is a direct target gene of PXR. A. Predicted putative PXREs on the SCD1 gene promoter and luciferase report gene constructs. B. The SCD1 promoter luciferase report genes and pRL-tk were co-transfected into HepG2 cells for 24 h, followed 24 h treatment with rifampicin (+Rif) or DMSO (-Rif). The luciferase activities were measured. *, P,0.05. C. The SCD1 promoter luciferase report genes and pRL-tk were co-transfected withSCD1 Contributes to the Lipogenic Effect by PXRpVP-PXR expression vector into HepG2 cells for 24 h, and then the luciferase activities were measured. **, P,0.01. D. Site-direct mutagenesis of DR4 and DR7 elements on SCD1 promoter and then the transcriptional activity of PXR was measured. *, P,0.05. E. The binding of the PXR-RXR heterodimers to DR7 was confirmed by EMSA. The binding of PXR-RXR heterodimers to a DR3 type PXRE from the rat Cyp3a23 gene was included as a positive control. The arrowhead indicates the shift bands. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067959.glipogenic enzymes, stearoy.Nalyzed by ImageJ. All data were analyzed by comparing means with one-way ANOVA method using SPSS (Chicago, IL, USA, version 16.0). Data were shown as mean 6 SEM and P,0.05 denotes statistically significant difference.Results Rifampicin Induced PXR Translocation to the NucleusPXR, known as a xenobiotic receptor, is a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor, which forms heterodimers with the nuclear receptor retinoic X receptor (RXR) upon activation by its agonists and subsequently induces its target genes expression. In this experiment, PXR was transiently transfected into HEK293T cells. Twenty-four hour after transfection, cells were incubated with rifampicin or DMSO for another 2 h. Most of the transfected PXR was located in the cytosol in the absence of ligand (Figure 1). Upon rifampicin incubation, PXR translocated to the nucleus (Figure 1).determine whether activation of the human PXR in human liver cells has the same effect, we treated HepG2 cells with rifampicin. Oil red O staining showed lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells after rifampicin incubation (Figure 2A and Figure 2B). Lipid profile analysis showed that the triglyceride level was not changed in the cells (Figure 2C), whereas the total cholesterol level was significantly increased (Figure 2D). However, the free cholesterol level was not changed (Figure 2E), indicating that the cholesterol ester level was induced in HepG2 cells after rifampicin treatment.Rifampicin Affected the Expression of Genes that Impact Lipid HomeostasisThe lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells prompted us to examine the effect of rifampicin on the expression of genes that affect lipid homeostasis. RT-PCR analyses showed that the expression of CD36, a fatty acid translocase that is responsible for the high affinity uptake of fatty acids, was up-regulated (Figure 3A). In mouse models, CD36 has been established as a common target gene of LXR, PXR and PPARc in promoting steatosis [31]. The expression of ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 1 (ABCG1), a gene involved in cholesterol and phospholipids transport, was also increased (Figure 3A). The expression of PPARc was not affected (Figure 3B), which was different from the results from mice [23,30]. In addition, the expression of twoRifampicin Induced Lipid Accumulation in HepG2 CellsPrevious studies have shown that activation of PXR in mice induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis [23]. In order toSCD1 Contributes to the Lipogenic Effect by PXRFigure 7. SCD1 is a direct target gene of PXR. A. Predicted putative PXREs on the SCD1 gene promoter and luciferase report gene constructs. B. The SCD1 promoter luciferase report genes and pRL-tk were co-transfected into HepG2 cells for 24 h, followed 24 h treatment with rifampicin (+Rif) or DMSO (-Rif). The luciferase activities were measured. *, P,0.05. C. The SCD1 promoter luciferase report genes and pRL-tk were co-transfected withSCD1 Contributes to the Lipogenic Effect by PXRpVP-PXR expression vector into HepG2 cells for 24 h, and then the luciferase activities were measured. **, P,0.01. D. Site-direct mutagenesis of DR4 and DR7 elements on SCD1 promoter and then the transcriptional activity of PXR was measured. *, P,0.05. E. The binding of the PXR-RXR heterodimers to DR7 was confirmed by EMSA. The binding of PXR-RXR heterodimers to a DR3 type PXRE from the rat Cyp3a23 gene was included as a positive control. The arrowhead indicates the shift bands. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067959.glipogenic enzymes, stearoy.

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