Ays. EMT of melanoma cells in the neural

Ays. EMT of melanoma cells in the neural 1516647 crest environment of the chick embryo was evident when comparing the compact, round, epithelial-like morphology of the melanoma cells remaining in the lumen of the neural tube with the migrating fraction of thecells featuring a stretched, mesenchymal morphology (Figures 3A and B). The segmental pattern of medial neural crest Epigenetic Reader Domain migration is due to inhibitory signals in the caudal and chemotactic clues in the rostral halves of the sclerotomes [25]. Transplanted melanoma cells follow the segmental medial pathway and were found in the clusters of the sympathetic chain ganglia close to the dorsal aorta [14]. In some embryos single melanoma cells were observed in the Schwann cell compartment at the motor root of the spinal nerve. The detection of single migrating melanoma cells in the chick embryo was not trivial. The entire pathway from the bulk of transplanted cells to the sympathetic ganglia is represented only in serial cross sections perpendicular to a plane tangential to the curved neural tube (Figures 3A and D). A large portion of colonized sympathetic chain becomes visible when the embryo was sectioned in the tangential plane itself [15]. In the sympathetic ganglia and in part also in the sclerotomal mesenchyme the melanoma cells undergo apoptosis as shown by tunnel and caspase-8 immunohistochemistry (Fig. 3 C; [15]). In the chick embryo migration of neural crest cells along the lateral pathway is delayed by about 24 h as compared to the medial pathway. After EMT neural crest cells rest in the dorsal mesoderm between roof plate and surface ectoderm (“staging area” [25]). The epithelial dermomyotome portions of the somites inhibit neural crest cell migration between surface ectoderm and somites. Only after dissolution of the epithelial dermatomes, nonsegmental migration along the lateral pathway starts. Melanoma cells resting amongst the chick melanocyte precursor cells in the staging area after EMT also resume neural crest cell migration along the lateral pathway. However, they are Autophagy heavily decimated by apoptosis during migration so that only few can be finally detected in the lateral body wall [15]. Considering the large amount of apoptotic melanoma cells at the final spots of terminal differen-The Chick Embryo in Melanoma Researchtiation, one can speculate that site-specific factors physiologically driving terminal differentiation in the embryo (e.g. para-aortically for neural crest cells destined to form the sympathetic chain, or below the ectoderm for melanoblasts) seem to eliminate the melanoma cells via induction of apoptosis. The apoptosis program seems to be the only way for melanoma cells to react to these sitespecific embryonic micro-environmental circumstances.reconstructs) melanoma cells from three different inhibitor growth phases (radial growth phase, vertical growth phase, metastatic growth phase) retained their graded invasive qualities in vivo. For the in vivo experiment we chose the rhombencephalon as transplantation site. However, the method itself was not described in detail.Non-transformed Primary Human Melanocytes do not Perform Neural Crest Cell MigrationTo demonstrate that the neural crest migration spontaneously performed by melanoma cells upon transplantation into the neural tube was due to re-expression of embryonic Epigenetics traits, aggregates from primary human melanocytes were also injected into the neural tube. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the melanocyte aggregates integr.Ays. EMT of melanoma cells in the neural 1516647 crest environment of the chick embryo was evident when comparing the compact, round, epithelial-like morphology of the melanoma cells remaining in the lumen of the neural tube with the migrating fraction of thecells featuring a stretched, mesenchymal morphology (Figures 3A and B). The segmental pattern of medial neural crest migration is due to inhibitory signals in the caudal and chemotactic clues in the rostral halves of the sclerotomes [25]. Transplanted melanoma cells follow the segmental medial pathway and were found in the clusters of the sympathetic chain ganglia close to the dorsal aorta [14]. In some embryos single melanoma cells were observed in the Schwann cell compartment at the motor root of the spinal nerve. The detection of single migrating melanoma cells in the chick embryo was not trivial. The entire pathway from the bulk of transplanted cells to the sympathetic ganglia is represented only in serial cross sections perpendicular to a plane tangential to the curved neural tube (Figures 3A and D). A large portion of colonized sympathetic chain becomes visible when the embryo was sectioned in the tangential plane itself [15]. In the sympathetic ganglia and in part also in the sclerotomal mesenchyme the melanoma cells undergo apoptosis as shown by tunnel and caspase-8 immunohistochemistry (Fig. 3 C; [15]). In the chick embryo migration of neural crest cells along the lateral pathway is delayed by about 24 h as compared to the medial pathway. After EMT neural crest cells rest in the dorsal mesoderm between roof plate and surface ectoderm (“staging area” [25]). The epithelial dermomyotome portions of the somites inhibit neural crest cell migration between surface ectoderm and somites. Only after dissolution of the epithelial dermatomes, nonsegmental migration along the lateral pathway starts. Melanoma cells resting amongst the chick melanocyte precursor cells in the staging area after EMT also resume neural crest cell migration along the lateral pathway. However, they are heavily decimated by apoptosis during migration so that only few can be finally detected in the lateral body wall [15]. Considering the large amount of apoptotic melanoma cells at the final spots of terminal differen-The Chick Embryo in Melanoma Researchtiation, one can speculate that site-specific factors physiologically driving terminal differentiation in the embryo (e.g. para-aortically for neural crest cells destined to form the sympathetic chain, or below the ectoderm for melanoblasts) seem to eliminate the melanoma cells via induction of apoptosis. The apoptosis program seems to be the only way for melanoma cells to react to these sitespecific embryonic micro-environmental circumstances.reconstructs) melanoma cells from three different growth phases (radial growth phase, vertical growth phase, metastatic growth phase) retained their graded invasive qualities in vivo. For the in vivo experiment we chose the rhombencephalon as transplantation site. However, the method itself was not described in detail.Non-transformed Primary Human Melanocytes do not Perform Neural Crest Cell MigrationTo demonstrate that the neural crest migration spontaneously performed by melanoma cells upon transplantation into the neural tube was due to re-expression of embryonic traits, aggregates from primary human melanocytes were also injected into the neural tube. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the melanocyte aggregates integr.Ays. EMT of melanoma cells in the neural 1516647 crest environment of the chick embryo was evident when comparing the compact, round, epithelial-like morphology of the melanoma cells remaining in the lumen of the neural tube with the migrating fraction of thecells featuring a stretched, mesenchymal morphology (Figures 3A and B). The segmental pattern of medial neural crest migration is due to inhibitory signals in the caudal and chemotactic clues in the rostral halves of the sclerotomes [25]. Transplanted melanoma cells follow the segmental medial pathway and were found in the clusters of the sympathetic chain ganglia close to the dorsal aorta [14]. In some embryos single melanoma cells were observed in the Schwann cell compartment at the motor root of the spinal nerve. The detection of single migrating melanoma cells in the chick embryo was not trivial. The entire pathway from the bulk of transplanted cells to the sympathetic ganglia is represented only in serial cross sections perpendicular to a plane tangential to the curved neural tube (Figures 3A and D). A large portion of colonized sympathetic chain becomes visible when the embryo was sectioned in the tangential plane itself [15]. In the sympathetic ganglia and in part also in the sclerotomal mesenchyme the melanoma cells undergo apoptosis as shown by tunnel and caspase-8 immunohistochemistry (Fig. 3 C; [15]). In the chick embryo migration of neural crest cells along the lateral pathway is delayed by about 24 h as compared to the medial pathway. After EMT neural crest cells rest in the dorsal mesoderm between roof plate and surface ectoderm (“staging area” [25]). The epithelial dermomyotome portions of the somites inhibit neural crest cell migration between surface ectoderm and somites. Only after dissolution of the epithelial dermatomes, nonsegmental migration along the lateral pathway starts. Melanoma cells resting amongst the chick melanocyte precursor cells in the staging area after EMT also resume neural crest cell migration along the lateral pathway. However, they are heavily decimated by apoptosis during migration so that only few can be finally detected in the lateral body wall [15]. Considering the large amount of apoptotic melanoma cells at the final spots of terminal differen-The Chick Embryo in Melanoma Researchtiation, one can speculate that site-specific factors physiologically driving terminal differentiation in the embryo (e.g. para-aortically for neural crest cells destined to form the sympathetic chain, or below the ectoderm for melanoblasts) seem to eliminate the melanoma cells via induction of apoptosis. The apoptosis program seems to be the only way for melanoma cells to react to these sitespecific embryonic micro-environmental circumstances.reconstructs) melanoma cells from three different growth phases (radial growth phase, vertical growth phase, metastatic growth phase) retained their graded invasive qualities in vivo. For the in vivo experiment we chose the rhombencephalon as transplantation site. However, the method itself was not described in detail.Non-transformed Primary Human Melanocytes do not Perform Neural Crest Cell MigrationTo demonstrate that the neural crest migration spontaneously performed by melanoma cells upon transplantation into the neural tube was due to re-expression of embryonic traits, aggregates from primary human melanocytes were also injected into the neural tube. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the melanocyte aggregates integr.Ays. EMT of melanoma cells in the neural 1516647 crest environment of the chick embryo was evident when comparing the compact, round, epithelial-like morphology of the melanoma cells remaining in the lumen of the neural tube with the migrating fraction of thecells featuring a stretched, mesenchymal morphology (Figures 3A and B). The segmental pattern of medial neural crest migration is due to inhibitory signals in the caudal and chemotactic clues in the rostral halves of the sclerotomes [25]. Transplanted melanoma cells follow the segmental medial pathway and were found in the clusters of the sympathetic chain ganglia close to the dorsal aorta [14]. In some embryos single melanoma cells were observed in the Schwann cell compartment at the motor root of the spinal nerve. The detection of single migrating melanoma cells in the chick embryo was not trivial. The entire pathway from the bulk of transplanted cells to the sympathetic ganglia is represented only in serial cross sections perpendicular to a plane tangential to the curved neural tube (Figures 3A and D). A large portion of colonized sympathetic chain becomes visible when the embryo was sectioned in the tangential plane itself [15]. In the sympathetic ganglia and in part also in the sclerotomal mesenchyme the melanoma cells undergo apoptosis as shown by tunnel and caspase-8 immunohistochemistry (Fig. 3 C; [15]). In the chick embryo migration of neural crest cells along the lateral pathway is delayed by about 24 h as compared to the medial pathway. After EMT neural crest cells rest in the dorsal mesoderm between roof plate and surface ectoderm (“staging area” [25]). The epithelial dermomyotome portions of the somites inhibit neural crest cell migration between surface ectoderm and somites. Only after dissolution of the epithelial dermatomes, nonsegmental migration along the lateral pathway starts. Melanoma cells resting amongst the chick melanocyte precursor cells in the staging area after EMT also resume neural crest cell migration along the lateral pathway. However, they are heavily decimated by apoptosis during migration so that only few can be finally detected in the lateral body wall [15]. Considering the large amount of apoptotic melanoma cells at the final spots of terminal differen-The Chick Embryo in Melanoma Researchtiation, one can speculate that site-specific factors physiologically driving terminal differentiation in the embryo (e.g. para-aortically for neural crest cells destined to form the sympathetic chain, or below the ectoderm for melanoblasts) seem to eliminate the melanoma cells via induction of apoptosis. The apoptosis program seems to be the only way for melanoma cells to react to these sitespecific embryonic micro-environmental circumstances.reconstructs) melanoma cells from three different growth phases (radial growth phase, vertical growth phase, metastatic growth phase) retained their graded invasive qualities in vivo. For the in vivo experiment we chose the rhombencephalon as transplantation site. However, the method itself was not described in detail.Non-transformed Primary Human Melanocytes do not Perform Neural Crest Cell MigrationTo demonstrate that the neural crest migration spontaneously performed by melanoma cells upon transplantation into the neural tube was due to re-expression of embryonic traits, aggregates from primary human melanocytes were also injected into the neural tube. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the melanocyte aggregates integr.

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