Ansgene expression has been poorly understood. DNA hypermethylation was considered as

Ansgene expression has been poorly understood. DNA hypermethylation was considered as a critical factor resulting in silence of transgene expression. Concurrent report also showed that about one-third of integrated lentiviral transgenes in pigs were subjected to methylation and exhibited lower expression [19]. As for transgenic sheep, since the first one was produced in 1985 by Hammer with pronuclear microinjection [3], some new approaches have been used for production of transgenic sheep, for Lecirelin instance, somatic cell cloning (SCC) [5] and sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) [20]. In the mass, the transgenic efficiency remains extremely low. Ritchie et al succeeded in producing transgenic sheep by transferring blastocysts derived from oocyte injection of lentivirus with 20 transgenic efficiency [21]. However there are few comprehensive studies on the diversity of transgene integration, expression and alteration of methylation in transgenic sheep. Especially, transgene efficiency, expression pattern and epigenetic state of transgenic sheep produced by lentiviral injection have not been well understood. Hereby, we demonstrated for the first time that the transgenesis by injection of EGFP-lentivirus into perivitelline space of sheep zygote is a high efficient tool for generation of transgenic sheep and transgene can be expressed in almost all transgenic founders and their various tissues. Furthermore, methylation status of transgene and its effect on transgene expression, as well as relationship between integrant numbers and its expression were firstly investigated in lentivirusmediated transgenic sheep.The vector carries self-inactivating long terminal repeat (SIN LTR), internal ribosome entry site (IRES), mammalian selectable marker (puromycin) and woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE). EGFP gene is located at downstream of the CMV promoter. To generate pLEX-EGFP lentiviral particles, HEK293T cells were seeded in a 100-mm dish at a density of 60,000 cells/cm2 and co-transfected with pLEX-EGFP (12 mg) along with packaging plasmids (3.5 mg pMD2.G and 6 mg pPAX2) using Lipofectamine 2000 (ASP-015K site Invitrogen) at a DNA/Lipofectamine ratio of 1 to 3. After 48 h transfection, the supernatant containing lentivirus particles was filtered through 0.45-mm syringe filter and concentrated by ultracentrifugation (Beckman) at 50,000 g for 2 hour at 4uC. Precipitation was resuspended in phosphate buffered saline, aliquoted and stored at 280uC. 15755315 Lentivirus titre was determined by infecting HEK293T cells with serial dilutions of concentrated lentivirus, and thereafter quantitated by counting the GFP fluorescent cells with flow cytometry (Becton, Dickinson and Company) post of 48 h infection as previous described [22]. The titre of pLEX-EGFP was approximately 36109 infectious units (IU) per ml in average.Lentivirus Injection and Embryo TransferTransgenic sheep were generated via injection of lentivirus into perivitelline space of the zygote. In brief, embryos were obtained from Xinjiang Merino Sheep which were approximately 2 years old and weighed at least 50 kg. Superovulation was carried out within sheep breeding season from September to November and started on 3 days before oestrus induced by intramuscular injection of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, Sigma-Aldrich). FSH was injected once per 12 hours lasting for 3 days. Briefly, twice injection of 40 IU FSH was performed on the first day, 30 IU on the second day and 20 IU on t.Ansgene expression has been poorly understood. DNA hypermethylation was considered as a critical factor resulting in silence of transgene expression. Concurrent report also showed that about one-third of integrated lentiviral transgenes in pigs were subjected to methylation and exhibited lower expression [19]. As for transgenic sheep, since the first one was produced in 1985 by Hammer with pronuclear microinjection [3], some new approaches have been used for production of transgenic sheep, for instance, somatic cell cloning (SCC) [5] and sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) [20]. In the mass, the transgenic efficiency remains extremely low. Ritchie et al succeeded in producing transgenic sheep by transferring blastocysts derived from oocyte injection of lentivirus with 20 transgenic efficiency [21]. However there are few comprehensive studies on the diversity of transgene integration, expression and alteration of methylation in transgenic sheep. Especially, transgene efficiency, expression pattern and epigenetic state of transgenic sheep produced by lentiviral injection have not been well understood. Hereby, we demonstrated for the first time that the transgenesis by injection of EGFP-lentivirus into perivitelline space of sheep zygote is a high efficient tool for generation of transgenic sheep and transgene can be expressed in almost all transgenic founders and their various tissues. Furthermore, methylation status of transgene and its effect on transgene expression, as well as relationship between integrant numbers and its expression were firstly investigated in lentivirusmediated transgenic sheep.The vector carries self-inactivating long terminal repeat (SIN LTR), internal ribosome entry site (IRES), mammalian selectable marker (puromycin) and woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE). EGFP gene is located at downstream of the CMV promoter. To generate pLEX-EGFP lentiviral particles, HEK293T cells were seeded in a 100-mm dish at a density of 60,000 cells/cm2 and co-transfected with pLEX-EGFP (12 mg) along with packaging plasmids (3.5 mg pMD2.G and 6 mg pPAX2) using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) at a DNA/Lipofectamine ratio of 1 to 3. After 48 h transfection, the supernatant containing lentivirus particles was filtered through 0.45-mm syringe filter and concentrated by ultracentrifugation (Beckman) at 50,000 g for 2 hour at 4uC. Precipitation was resuspended in phosphate buffered saline, aliquoted and stored at 280uC. 15755315 Lentivirus titre was determined by infecting HEK293T cells with serial dilutions of concentrated lentivirus, and thereafter quantitated by counting the GFP fluorescent cells with flow cytometry (Becton, Dickinson and Company) post of 48 h infection as previous described [22]. The titre of pLEX-EGFP was approximately 36109 infectious units (IU) per ml in average.Lentivirus Injection and Embryo TransferTransgenic sheep were generated via injection of lentivirus into perivitelline space of the zygote. In brief, embryos were obtained from Xinjiang Merino Sheep which were approximately 2 years old and weighed at least 50 kg. Superovulation was carried out within sheep breeding season from September to November and started on 3 days before oestrus induced by intramuscular injection of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, Sigma-Aldrich). FSH was injected once per 12 hours lasting for 3 days. Briefly, twice injection of 40 IU FSH was performed on the first day, 30 IU on the second day and 20 IU on t.

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