Each subgroup is indicated in the corresponding rectangle. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.

Each subgroup is indicated in the corresponding rectangle. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048993.gFGFR3 and TP53 Mutations in Bladder CancerTable 3. Association between FGFR3 and TP53 mutations according to the stage/grade group.Odds ratio estimatesGroup TxGypTaG1G2 (n = 242) pTaG3 (n = 42) pT1G2 (n = 65) pT1G3 (n = 260) pT2-4G2G3 (n = 195) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048993.tOR 1.16 0.47 0.55 0.65 1.95 Wald Confidence Limits 0.3 0.01 0.14 0.34 0.44 4.6 5.4 2.11 1.24 1.Fisher’s exact test P-value 0.85 0.37 0.74 0.17 0.with FGFR3 mutation (10/24). This proportion is lower than the 52 (95/183) of muscle-invasive MedChemExpress LIMKI-3 TA-02 price tumours with wild-type FGFR3 observed, but not significantly so. For tumours of the Ta pathway, the frequency of TP53 mutations seems to increase gradually with stage, from pTa (11/219; 5 of tumours with FGFR3 mutations also have TP53 mutations) to pT1 (29/106; TP53 mutations in 27 of tumours) and pT2-4 tumours (10/24; TP53 mutations in 42 of tumours). 22948146 Grade also seems to be important, as, for FGFR3-mutated tumours, the frequency of TP53 mutation was 17 in pT1G2 tumours and 37 in pT1G3 tumours. The frequency of FGFR3 mutation was found to be very similar in pT1G2 and pTa G1G2 tumours, suggesting that most pT1G2 tumours are derived from the Ta pathway rather than the CIS pathway. Consistent with this hypothesis, the frequency of TP53 mutation in pT1G2 tumours, although higher than that in pTa tumours (18 versus 7 ), was found to be much lower than that reported in 25837696 cases of dysplasia or CIS tumours (65?2 ) [3,17]. Thus, the lack of independence of FGFR3 and TP53 mutations when all pT1 tumours are considered together may reflect the two different pathways giving rise to tumours of this stage, with different frequencies of TP53 mutation. There are also more complex explanations for the findings of this meta-analysis. Mutation data for a series of tumours provide only a snapshot of the situation, from which the progression of individual tumours is inferred. Definitive validation of the model proposed will require extensive studies of TP53 and FGFR3 mutations in multiple tumours from the individual patients, including both non-muscle invasive and muscle-invasive tumours. It should be noted that a high proportion of bladder tumors present a wild-type phenotype (no FGFR3 or TP53 mutations): 32 of Ta tumors, 40 of T1 tumors and 43 of T2-4 tumors). These tumours probably have mutations in genes other than FGFR3 or TP53, but with a similar effect (activation of the FGFR3 signaling pathway in Ta tumors of low grade and mutations of genes causing genetic instability in high-grade or high-stage tumors). RAS mutations, which are observed in about 10 of bladder cancers and are never found with FGFR3 mutations, arethought to affect the FGFR3 signaling pathway [5,18]. MDM2 amplifications, which occur in about 6 of T1 and muscleinvasive bladder cancers [19], should lead to TP53 inactivation. Other mutations recently identified [20], or yet to be identified may also account for the absence of FGFR3 and TP53 mutations. We recently showed that most (80 ) muscle-invasive tumours with FGFR3 mutations harbour homozygous CDKN2A deletions, resulting in the loss of both P16INk4A and P14ARF [21]. The loss of P14ARF should lead to MDM2 activation, thereby decreasing TP53 levels. However, in tumours with FGFR3 mutations, homozygous CDKN2A deletion and TP53 mutation may occur together (data not shown), suggesting that these two events are not alternative m.Each subgroup is indicated in the corresponding rectangle. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048993.gFGFR3 and TP53 Mutations in Bladder CancerTable 3. Association between FGFR3 and TP53 mutations according to the stage/grade group.Odds ratio estimatesGroup TxGypTaG1G2 (n = 242) pTaG3 (n = 42) pT1G2 (n = 65) pT1G3 (n = 260) pT2-4G2G3 (n = 195) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048993.tOR 1.16 0.47 0.55 0.65 1.95 Wald Confidence Limits 0.3 0.01 0.14 0.34 0.44 4.6 5.4 2.11 1.24 1.Fisher’s exact test P-value 0.85 0.37 0.74 0.17 0.with FGFR3 mutation (10/24). This proportion is lower than the 52 (95/183) of muscle-invasive tumours with wild-type FGFR3 observed, but not significantly so. For tumours of the Ta pathway, the frequency of TP53 mutations seems to increase gradually with stage, from pTa (11/219; 5 of tumours with FGFR3 mutations also have TP53 mutations) to pT1 (29/106; TP53 mutations in 27 of tumours) and pT2-4 tumours (10/24; TP53 mutations in 42 of tumours). 22948146 Grade also seems to be important, as, for FGFR3-mutated tumours, the frequency of TP53 mutation was 17 in pT1G2 tumours and 37 in pT1G3 tumours. The frequency of FGFR3 mutation was found to be very similar in pT1G2 and pTa G1G2 tumours, suggesting that most pT1G2 tumours are derived from the Ta pathway rather than the CIS pathway. Consistent with this hypothesis, the frequency of TP53 mutation in pT1G2 tumours, although higher than that in pTa tumours (18 versus 7 ), was found to be much lower than that reported in 25837696 cases of dysplasia or CIS tumours (65?2 ) [3,17]. Thus, the lack of independence of FGFR3 and TP53 mutations when all pT1 tumours are considered together may reflect the two different pathways giving rise to tumours of this stage, with different frequencies of TP53 mutation. There are also more complex explanations for the findings of this meta-analysis. Mutation data for a series of tumours provide only a snapshot of the situation, from which the progression of individual tumours is inferred. Definitive validation of the model proposed will require extensive studies of TP53 and FGFR3 mutations in multiple tumours from the individual patients, including both non-muscle invasive and muscle-invasive tumours. It should be noted that a high proportion of bladder tumors present a wild-type phenotype (no FGFR3 or TP53 mutations): 32 of Ta tumors, 40 of T1 tumors and 43 of T2-4 tumors). These tumours probably have mutations in genes other than FGFR3 or TP53, but with a similar effect (activation of the FGFR3 signaling pathway in Ta tumors of low grade and mutations of genes causing genetic instability in high-grade or high-stage tumors). RAS mutations, which are observed in about 10 of bladder cancers and are never found with FGFR3 mutations, arethought to affect the FGFR3 signaling pathway [5,18]. MDM2 amplifications, which occur in about 6 of T1 and muscleinvasive bladder cancers [19], should lead to TP53 inactivation. Other mutations recently identified [20], or yet to be identified may also account for the absence of FGFR3 and TP53 mutations. We recently showed that most (80 ) muscle-invasive tumours with FGFR3 mutations harbour homozygous CDKN2A deletions, resulting in the loss of both P16INk4A and P14ARF [21]. The loss of P14ARF should lead to MDM2 activation, thereby decreasing TP53 levels. However, in tumours with FGFR3 mutations, homozygous CDKN2A deletion and TP53 mutation may occur together (data not shown), suggesting that these two events are not alternative m.

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