Distance between the side chain of each residue and the NP

Distance between the side chain of each residue and the NP surface. Only the last 50 ns simulations are considered. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065579.gindicated carbon nanotube inhibited the formation of b-sheet-rich oligomers of the Ab(16?2) peptide [16], and fullerene also strongly inhibited the Ab peptide aggregation at the early stage, specifically the central hydrophobic motif, KLVFF, of Ab(16?0) peptides [14]. These controversial conclusions suggest that further research needs to be performed to explore the effect of carbon nanoparticles on the formation of amyloid by 10457188 considering the inherent structure of the studied peptides and different external conditions.The Surface Curvature and Area Play Significant Roles in the MedChemExpress PS 1145 interaction between Carbon Nanomaterials and IAPP22?From the above analysis, it can 16574785 be seen that all the three kinds of carbon nanomaterials we investigated can reduce the content of bsheet structure and affect the formation of b-sheet-rich IAPP22?8 oligomers in different degrees. In the following section, we will discuss the driving forces for that. In this work, the simulated peptide is ACE-NFGAILS-NME, and the minimum distances between side chains of peptides and graphene almost all appear at 0.3 ns (Figure 8), especially hydrophobic ones including Title Loaded From File aromatic residue F23. This indicates graphene has a strong adsorption for IAPP22?8 and hydrophobic residues are easier to interact with graphene. F23 has large probabilities at around 0.3 nm for the graphene systems as Figure 8 shows. Consequently, the F23 residue in the peptide has a very strong interaction with graphitic material by the p stacking interaction. In accordance with this deduction, the Phe residue behaves like an “anchor”, which is “thrown” by the peptide to the graphene to lock itself onto the surface of graphene. Therefore, inInfluence of Nanoparticle on Amyloid FormationFigure 9. Detailed information of p stacking interaction between F23 residues and NPs: a). Representative structure of graphene interacting with 4 IAPP22?8 peptides; b) Representative structure of graphene interacting with 8 IAPP22?8 peptides; c) Probability distribution of the average distance between heavy atoms of F23 side chain and NPs. The heavy atoms of F23 side chain are shown as sticks, and peptides are shown as cartoon. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065579.gFigure 9, the aromatic residue F23 with the largest peak values has a strong p stacking interaction with the graphene surface, and it may play an important role in the inhibition process. Interestingly, p stacking interactions don’t seem to be the dominant driving force in the interaction the IAPP22?8 peptides with SWCNT and C60. The p stacking interactions between the peptide and graphene, SWCNT, and C60 strongly depend on the probability of the aromatic residue F23 forming a stable and flat conformation with the nanomaterial surface. For the curved NPs such as SWCNT and C60, in our simulations, the lower probability of forming flat p stacking with the benzene ring of F23 reduced the role of p stacking in their overall binding affinity with peptides. Obviously, the total number of carbon atoms from the carbon NPs contacting with the F23 side chain decreases from graphene, to SWCNT, to C60. In addition, most residues in IAPP22?8 peptide are hydrophobic, and the side chains of two middle ones, G24 and A25, are very small. The flexible hydrophobic aliphatic side chains can adapt to the curved carbon surfaces and form f.Distance between the side chain of each residue and the NP surface. Only the last 50 ns simulations are considered. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065579.gindicated carbon nanotube inhibited the formation of b-sheet-rich oligomers of the Ab(16?2) peptide [16], and fullerene also strongly inhibited the Ab peptide aggregation at the early stage, specifically the central hydrophobic motif, KLVFF, of Ab(16?0) peptides [14]. These controversial conclusions suggest that further research needs to be performed to explore the effect of carbon nanoparticles on the formation of amyloid by 10457188 considering the inherent structure of the studied peptides and different external conditions.The Surface Curvature and Area Play Significant Roles in the Interaction between Carbon Nanomaterials and IAPP22?From the above analysis, it can 16574785 be seen that all the three kinds of carbon nanomaterials we investigated can reduce the content of bsheet structure and affect the formation of b-sheet-rich IAPP22?8 oligomers in different degrees. In the following section, we will discuss the driving forces for that. In this work, the simulated peptide is ACE-NFGAILS-NME, and the minimum distances between side chains of peptides and graphene almost all appear at 0.3 ns (Figure 8), especially hydrophobic ones including aromatic residue F23. This indicates graphene has a strong adsorption for IAPP22?8 and hydrophobic residues are easier to interact with graphene. F23 has large probabilities at around 0.3 nm for the graphene systems as Figure 8 shows. Consequently, the F23 residue in the peptide has a very strong interaction with graphitic material by the p stacking interaction. In accordance with this deduction, the Phe residue behaves like an “anchor”, which is “thrown” by the peptide to the graphene to lock itself onto the surface of graphene. Therefore, inInfluence of Nanoparticle on Amyloid FormationFigure 9. Detailed information of p stacking interaction between F23 residues and NPs: a). Representative structure of graphene interacting with 4 IAPP22?8 peptides; b) Representative structure of graphene interacting with 8 IAPP22?8 peptides; c) Probability distribution of the average distance between heavy atoms of F23 side chain and NPs. The heavy atoms of F23 side chain are shown as sticks, and peptides are shown as cartoon. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065579.gFigure 9, the aromatic residue F23 with the largest peak values has a strong p stacking interaction with the graphene surface, and it may play an important role in the inhibition process. Interestingly, p stacking interactions don’t seem to be the dominant driving force in the interaction the IAPP22?8 peptides with SWCNT and C60. The p stacking interactions between the peptide and graphene, SWCNT, and C60 strongly depend on the probability of the aromatic residue F23 forming a stable and flat conformation with the nanomaterial surface. For the curved NPs such as SWCNT and C60, in our simulations, the lower probability of forming flat p stacking with the benzene ring of F23 reduced the role of p stacking in their overall binding affinity with peptides. Obviously, the total number of carbon atoms from the carbon NPs contacting with the F23 side chain decreases from graphene, to SWCNT, to C60. In addition, most residues in IAPP22?8 peptide are hydrophobic, and the side chains of two middle ones, G24 and A25, are very small. The flexible hydrophobic aliphatic side chains can adapt to the curved carbon surfaces and form f.

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