T GRP78 in the cell is degraded within 1? h of exposure

T GRP78 in the cell is degraded within 1? h of exposure, leading to massive apoptosis, even at toxin doses as low as 10 ng/mL, suggesting a highly potent catalytic activity [15]. To achieve selectively into cancer cells, we engineered a fusion protein epidermal Hesperidin web growth factor (EGF)-SubA, combining EGF with SubA, which demonstrated significant inhibition of human breast and prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo [16]. Based on the clear biologic relevance the UPR and GRP78 play in glioma tumorigenesis [10,11], we explored the anti-tumor potential of EGF-SubA in glioblastoma models.Materials and Methods Cell CultureHuman Glioblastoma cell lines U251, T98G and U87 were obtained from ATCC (Manassas, VA). U251 was grown in RPMI 1640 (GIBCO, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with 5 heat inactivated fetal bovine serum. U87 and T98G were grown in Eagles minimum essential medium (ATCC, Manassas, VA), supplemented with 10 heat inactivated fetal bovine serum (GIBCO). Immortalized normal human astrocytes-SV40 (NHA) were obtained from Applied Biological Materials (ABM; Richmond, BC, 15481974 Canada) and grown on Collagen IV (Sigma Aldrich; 2 mg/ml in 0.2 acetic acid) coated flasks or tissue culture plates in ABM Prigrow IV medium (ABM) supplemented with 10 heat inactivated fetal bovine serum (GIBCO). The glioblastoma neural stem (GNS) cell line G179 was provided by Dr. Austin Smith [17], distributed by BioRep (Milan, Italy), and grown in conditions as previously described [18]. All cells were grown in a humidified atmosphere at 37uC and 5 carbon dioxide. For acidic pH studies, respective media were acidified using 1N hydrochloric acid, pH tested, and filter sterilized. Cells were maintained in acidic conditions for at least 3 passages prior to performing the stated experiments.Figure 1. GRP78 expression in glioma. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on a glioma tissue microarray using an antiGRP78 antibody and expression levels (0, 1+, 2+, and 3+) were quantified based on the intensity of staining. Representative staining patterns (A) and tumor grade-specific distributions of identified staining intensities (B) are provided. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052265.gfollowed in handling the toxins. Temozolomide was purchased from Tocris Bioscience (Ellisville, MO) and dissolved in sterile DMSO. Cells were irradiated using the XRad 160 Xray source (Precision Xray Inc, N. Branford, CT) at 160 kV at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min.Clonogenic AssayCell NT-157 web survival was defined using a standard clonogenic assay. Cultures were trypsinized to generate a single-cell suspension and seeded into 6-well tissue culture plates. Irradiated feeder cells were used prior to U87 seeding to promote colony formation. Plates were then treated as described 16 h after seeding to allow cells to attach. Colonies were stained with crystal violet 10 to 14 d after seeding, the number of colonies containing at least 50 cells counted, and surviving fractions were calculated. 12926553 Results were confirmed in three independent experiments.TreatmentThe fusion protein EGF-SubA and control protein SubA lacking the targeting EGF moiety were provided by Sibtech, Inc. (Brookfield, Connecticut) as previously described [16] and dissolved in sterile PBS. Institutional safety guidelines wereTargeting the UPR in Glioblastoma with EGF-SubAFigure 2. SubA and EGF-SubA cleaves GRP78 and activates the UPR. Exponentially growing glioblastoma cell lines and normal human astrocytes (NHA) were (A) treated with SubA or EGF-SubA.T GRP78 in the cell is degraded within 1? h of exposure, leading to massive apoptosis, even at toxin doses as low as 10 ng/mL, suggesting a highly potent catalytic activity [15]. To achieve selectively into cancer cells, we engineered a fusion protein epidermal growth factor (EGF)-SubA, combining EGF with SubA, which demonstrated significant inhibition of human breast and prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo [16]. Based on the clear biologic relevance the UPR and GRP78 play in glioma tumorigenesis [10,11], we explored the anti-tumor potential of EGF-SubA in glioblastoma models.Materials and Methods Cell CultureHuman Glioblastoma cell lines U251, T98G and U87 were obtained from ATCC (Manassas, VA). U251 was grown in RPMI 1640 (GIBCO, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with 5 heat inactivated fetal bovine serum. U87 and T98G were grown in Eagles minimum essential medium (ATCC, Manassas, VA), supplemented with 10 heat inactivated fetal bovine serum (GIBCO). Immortalized normal human astrocytes-SV40 (NHA) were obtained from Applied Biological Materials (ABM; Richmond, BC, 15481974 Canada) and grown on Collagen IV (Sigma Aldrich; 2 mg/ml in 0.2 acetic acid) coated flasks or tissue culture plates in ABM Prigrow IV medium (ABM) supplemented with 10 heat inactivated fetal bovine serum (GIBCO). The glioblastoma neural stem (GNS) cell line G179 was provided by Dr. Austin Smith [17], distributed by BioRep (Milan, Italy), and grown in conditions as previously described [18]. All cells were grown in a humidified atmosphere at 37uC and 5 carbon dioxide. For acidic pH studies, respective media were acidified using 1N hydrochloric acid, pH tested, and filter sterilized. Cells were maintained in acidic conditions for at least 3 passages prior to performing the stated experiments.Figure 1. GRP78 expression in glioma. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on a glioma tissue microarray using an antiGRP78 antibody and expression levels (0, 1+, 2+, and 3+) were quantified based on the intensity of staining. Representative staining patterns (A) and tumor grade-specific distributions of identified staining intensities (B) are provided. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052265.gfollowed in handling the toxins. Temozolomide was purchased from Tocris Bioscience (Ellisville, MO) and dissolved in sterile DMSO. Cells were irradiated using the XRad 160 Xray source (Precision Xray Inc, N. Branford, CT) at 160 kV at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min.Clonogenic AssayCell survival was defined using a standard clonogenic assay. Cultures were trypsinized to generate a single-cell suspension and seeded into 6-well tissue culture plates. Irradiated feeder cells were used prior to U87 seeding to promote colony formation. Plates were then treated as described 16 h after seeding to allow cells to attach. Colonies were stained with crystal violet 10 to 14 d after seeding, the number of colonies containing at least 50 cells counted, and surviving fractions were calculated. 12926553 Results were confirmed in three independent experiments.TreatmentThe fusion protein EGF-SubA and control protein SubA lacking the targeting EGF moiety were provided by Sibtech, Inc. (Brookfield, Connecticut) as previously described [16] and dissolved in sterile PBS. Institutional safety guidelines wereTargeting the UPR in Glioblastoma with EGF-SubAFigure 2. SubA and EGF-SubA cleaves GRP78 and activates the UPR. Exponentially growing glioblastoma cell lines and normal human astrocytes (NHA) were (A) treated with SubA or EGF-SubA.

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