Added to the macrophages with indicated treatment/s. After 30 min incubation

Added to the macrophages with indicated treatment/s. After 30 min incubation, tris-HCl and MnCl2 mixture (100 ml) were added to cells at 56uC for 10 min. The plates were incubated with L-arginine (100 ml) at 37uC for 30 min, and then H2SO4/H3PO4/H2O mixture (800 ml) was added and heated with a-isopropylidene nitrobenzene acetone (50 ml) at 95uC for 30 min. The complex in each well was dilutedMC1R RNA Interference (RNAi)The chemically synthesized MC1R siRNA (small interfering RNA) duplexes (Tab. 1) against mouse MC1R (s1, s2 and s3) were purchased from Ambion (GenePharm Co. Ltd. Shanghai, China). The primary cultured macrophages were plated in 24-well plates (2.56105/well). After 4 h, siRNA was transfected into cells with(CKPV)2 Inhibits Candida albicans VaginitisFigure 2. (CKPV)2 inhibits Candida albicans in a rat vaginitis model. (A) The CFUs of Candida albicans at day 0 and day 18 after indicated treatment. (B) The inhibitory ratio of (CKPV)2 to Candida albicans survival. The survival ratio ( ) was calculated by the number of surviving colonies after indicated drug treatment divided by the number of colonies before treatment. Experiments in this figure were repeated three times and similar results were obtained. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056004.g(CKPV)2 Inhibits Candida albicans VaginitisTable 2. The effects of (CKPV) 2 on Candida albicans in rat vaginitis (n = 6).LED 209 GroupDoses (mg/kg)CFUs, Mean degree and Survival ratio( )of C.albicans on day(X) 0 CFUs Mean degree 2.5 3.8 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0 Survival ratio( ) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3 CFUs .200 .200 79 39 123 105 Mean degree 2.5 3.3 1.8 1.8 2.3 2.7 11 Survival ratio( ) CFUs 100.0 86.8 72.0 72.0 76.7 90.0 .200 150 77 10 55 283 Mean degree 2.4 1.7 1.7 0.3 2.0 2.2 Survival ratio( ) 96.0 44.7 68.0 12.0 66.7 73.3 18 CFUs .200 11967625 80 43 1 8 24 Mean degree 2.3 1.2 1.2 0.0 0.3 1.0 Survival ratio( ) 92.0 31.6 42.9 0.0 10.0 33.Control Miconazole a-MSH (CKPV)0.5 1.7 2 1 0..200 .200 100 .200 386(CKPV)2 (CKPV)At day 0, 3, 11 and 18 after indicated treatment (per day), vaginal was lavaged with 100 ml PBS, afterwards, the lavage was transferred to Sabouraud medium after dilution of 1:1000 and cultured at 30uC for 48 h. Colonies forming units (CFUs) were recorded and classified according to the following standard: the number of colonies .1000, degree 4; 100?000, degree 3; 10?00, degree 2; 5?0, degree1; ,5, degree 0. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056004.t20 times with PBS to detect the optical density (OD) values at 540 15755315 nm with a UV spectrophotometer [36,37].IL-1b, IL-6 and IL-10 ELISA assayThe macrophages supernatant was collected 24 hours after indicated treatment/s. TNF-a,IL-1b, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were buy Indolactam V determined via double antibodies sandwich ABC-ELISA kits from R D Systems (Minneapolis, USA) according the manufacturer procedures.treated group was 44.7 . At the 18th day of treatment, the survival rate of vaginal Candida albicans of (CKPV)2 (2 mg/kg)treated group was close to 0 (Fig. 2). The results suggested that (CKPV)2 were more effective against Candida albicans vaginitis than a-MSH or miconazole (Tab. 2, Fig. 2).In a Rat Vaginitis Model, (CKPV)2 Promotes Infiltrated Macrophage M2 PolarizationStudies have been focusing on the underlying mechanism by which host responses to Candida albicans infections. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, mainly polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages, and/or some lymphocytes has been proposed. These infiltrated inflammatory cells response to microorganism.Added to the macrophages with indicated treatment/s. After 30 min incubation, tris-HCl and MnCl2 mixture (100 ml) were added to cells at 56uC for 10 min. The plates were incubated with L-arginine (100 ml) at 37uC for 30 min, and then H2SO4/H3PO4/H2O mixture (800 ml) was added and heated with a-isopropylidene nitrobenzene acetone (50 ml) at 95uC for 30 min. The complex in each well was dilutedMC1R RNA Interference (RNAi)The chemically synthesized MC1R siRNA (small interfering RNA) duplexes (Tab. 1) against mouse MC1R (s1, s2 and s3) were purchased from Ambion (GenePharm Co. Ltd. Shanghai, China). The primary cultured macrophages were plated in 24-well plates (2.56105/well). After 4 h, siRNA was transfected into cells with(CKPV)2 Inhibits Candida albicans VaginitisFigure 2. (CKPV)2 inhibits Candida albicans in a rat vaginitis model. (A) The CFUs of Candida albicans at day 0 and day 18 after indicated treatment. (B) The inhibitory ratio of (CKPV)2 to Candida albicans survival. The survival ratio ( ) was calculated by the number of surviving colonies after indicated drug treatment divided by the number of colonies before treatment. Experiments in this figure were repeated three times and similar results were obtained. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056004.g(CKPV)2 Inhibits Candida albicans VaginitisTable 2. The effects of (CKPV) 2 on Candida albicans in rat vaginitis (n = 6).GroupDoses (mg/kg)CFUs, Mean degree and Survival ratio( )of C.albicans on day(X) 0 CFUs Mean degree 2.5 3.8 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0 Survival ratio( ) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3 CFUs .200 .200 79 39 123 105 Mean degree 2.5 3.3 1.8 1.8 2.3 2.7 11 Survival ratio( ) CFUs 100.0 86.8 72.0 72.0 76.7 90.0 .200 150 77 10 55 283 Mean degree 2.4 1.7 1.7 0.3 2.0 2.2 Survival ratio( ) 96.0 44.7 68.0 12.0 66.7 73.3 18 CFUs .200 11967625 80 43 1 8 24 Mean degree 2.3 1.2 1.2 0.0 0.3 1.0 Survival ratio( ) 92.0 31.6 42.9 0.0 10.0 33.Control Miconazole a-MSH (CKPV)0.5 1.7 2 1 0..200 .200 100 .200 386(CKPV)2 (CKPV)At day 0, 3, 11 and 18 after indicated treatment (per day), vaginal was lavaged with 100 ml PBS, afterwards, the lavage was transferred to Sabouraud medium after dilution of 1:1000 and cultured at 30uC for 48 h. Colonies forming units (CFUs) were recorded and classified according to the following standard: the number of colonies .1000, degree 4; 100?000, degree 3; 10?00, degree 2; 5?0, degree1; ,5, degree 0. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056004.t20 times with PBS to detect the optical density (OD) values at 540 15755315 nm with a UV spectrophotometer [36,37].IL-1b, IL-6 and IL-10 ELISA assayThe macrophages supernatant was collected 24 hours after indicated treatment/s. TNF-a,IL-1b, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were determined via double antibodies sandwich ABC-ELISA kits from R D Systems (Minneapolis, USA) according the manufacturer procedures.treated group was 44.7 . At the 18th day of treatment, the survival rate of vaginal Candida albicans of (CKPV)2 (2 mg/kg)treated group was close to 0 (Fig. 2). The results suggested that (CKPV)2 were more effective against Candida albicans vaginitis than a-MSH or miconazole (Tab. 2, Fig. 2).In a Rat Vaginitis Model, (CKPV)2 Promotes Infiltrated Macrophage M2 PolarizationStudies have been focusing on the underlying mechanism by which host responses to Candida albicans infections. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, mainly polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages, and/or some lymphocytes has been proposed. These infiltrated inflammatory cells response to microorganism.

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