S(A) and cell lysates (B). When CYP27A1 was knocked

S(A) and cell lysates (B). When CYP27A1 was knocked down, the generation of 1,25OH2D3 decreased significantly compared to when CYP27A1 was not knocked down. The data are presented as the mean 6 SE. * hGF or hPDLC generated significantly less 1,25OH2D3 with 1000 nM vitamin D3 when CYP27A1 was knocked down (p,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052053.gconcentration was determined using the Bicinchoninic Acid Protein Assay Kit (Applygen, Beijing, China). Twenty micrograms of total protein from each sample were loaded onto a gel comprising a 5 (w/v) stacking gel and a 10 (w/v) running gel. At the end of the electrophoresis, samples were transferred onto nitrocellulose blotting membranes (HybondTM; Amersham Pharmacia, Little Chalfont, UK). Blots were probed with a goat polyclonal antibody to CYP27A1 (diluted 1:200; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA), a mouse polyclonal antibody to CYP2R1 (diluted 1:500; ABCAM, Cambridge, UK) or a mouse monoclonal antibody to b-actin (diluted 1:1000; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA). After washing, blots were incubated with horseradish peroxidase-linked secondary antibody. The secondary buy TA-01 antibodies against sheep (Kirkegaard Perry Laboratories, Inc., Maryland, USA) and mouse (BeijingFigure 8. Preliminary investigation of CYP27A1 regulation by inflammatory stimuli in hGF and hPDLC. hGF and hPDLC from donors 2, 3, 4 and 5 were stimulated with different treatments indicated in the figure for 24 h, and CYP27A1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR. IL-1b and Pg-LPS significantly up-regulated CYP27A1 mRNA expression and the higher dose of IL-1b or Pg-LPS raised higher CYP27A1 mRNA up-regulation in both hGF and hPDLC. Sodium butyrate did not significantly influence CYP27A1 mRNA expression. Additionally, the characteristics of CYP27A1 regulation in hGF and hPDLC were not significantly different. The data are presented as the mean 6 SE. * CYP27A1 mRNA expression was significantly different from that of the vehicle group (p,0.05). # CYP27A1 mRNA expression was significantly different from that of the 1 ng/mL IL-1b group (p,0.05). CYP27A1 mRNA expression was significantly different from that of the 1 mg/mL Pg-LPS group (p,0.05). IL-1?: interleukin-1b. PgLPS: Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052053.g`Zhongshan Golden Bridge Biotechnology, Beijing, China) IgG were both diluted 1:2500. MedChemExpress Madrasin Antigen-antibody complexes were detected using the Enhanced Chemiluminescence reagent (Applygen, Beijing, China).Periodontal 25-Hydroxylase ActivityTable 1. Primer sequences used for PCR or real-time PCR.Target genes CYP27A1 CYP2R1 GAPDHForward primer (59 R39) GCTCTTGGAGCAAGTGATG TTGGAGGCATATCAACTGTGGT GAAGGTGAAGGTCGGAGTCReverse primer (59 R39) AGCATCCGTATAGAGCGC CTCGGCCATATCTGGAATTGAG GAAGATGGTGATGGGATTTCProducts (bp) 196 153doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052053.tDetection of 25OHD3 ProductionCells from 3 donors were treated with 1000 nM vitamin D3 12926553 (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) for 1, 4, 12, 24 or 48 h, after which supernatants were collected, and the cells were scraped in PBS containing 0.2 Triton X-100 and stored at 280uC. Prior to use, cell lysates were sonicated on ice in a sonifier cell disrupter for 2615 s. The levels of 25OHD3 in cell supernatants and cell lysates were detected using a 25OHD3 radioimmunoassay kit (DiaSorin, Stillwater, MN, USA) with a sensitivity of 1.5 ng/mL.vitamin D3 (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) for another 12 h. Then, the 25OHD3 concentrations in.S(A) and cell lysates (B). When CYP27A1 was knocked down, the generation of 1,25OH2D3 decreased significantly compared to when CYP27A1 was not knocked down. The data are presented as the mean 6 SE. * hGF or hPDLC generated significantly less 1,25OH2D3 with 1000 nM vitamin D3 when CYP27A1 was knocked down (p,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052053.gconcentration was determined using the Bicinchoninic Acid Protein Assay Kit (Applygen, Beijing, China). Twenty micrograms of total protein from each sample were loaded onto a gel comprising a 5 (w/v) stacking gel and a 10 (w/v) running gel. At the end of the electrophoresis, samples were transferred onto nitrocellulose blotting membranes (HybondTM; Amersham Pharmacia, Little Chalfont, UK). Blots were probed with a goat polyclonal antibody to CYP27A1 (diluted 1:200; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA), a mouse polyclonal antibody to CYP2R1 (diluted 1:500; ABCAM, Cambridge, UK) or a mouse monoclonal antibody to b-actin (diluted 1:1000; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA). After washing, blots were incubated with horseradish peroxidase-linked secondary antibody. The secondary antibodies against sheep (Kirkegaard Perry Laboratories, Inc., Maryland, USA) and mouse (BeijingFigure 8. Preliminary investigation of CYP27A1 regulation by inflammatory stimuli in hGF and hPDLC. hGF and hPDLC from donors 2, 3, 4 and 5 were stimulated with different treatments indicated in the figure for 24 h, and CYP27A1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR. IL-1b and Pg-LPS significantly up-regulated CYP27A1 mRNA expression and the higher dose of IL-1b or Pg-LPS raised higher CYP27A1 mRNA up-regulation in both hGF and hPDLC. Sodium butyrate did not significantly influence CYP27A1 mRNA expression. Additionally, the characteristics of CYP27A1 regulation in hGF and hPDLC were not significantly different. The data are presented as the mean 6 SE. * CYP27A1 mRNA expression was significantly different from that of the vehicle group (p,0.05). # CYP27A1 mRNA expression was significantly different from that of the 1 ng/mL IL-1b group (p,0.05). CYP27A1 mRNA expression was significantly different from that of the 1 mg/mL Pg-LPS group (p,0.05). IL-1?: interleukin-1b. PgLPS: Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052053.g`Zhongshan Golden Bridge Biotechnology, Beijing, China) IgG were both diluted 1:2500. Antigen-antibody complexes were detected using the Enhanced Chemiluminescence reagent (Applygen, Beijing, China).Periodontal 25-Hydroxylase ActivityTable 1. Primer sequences used for PCR or real-time PCR.Target genes CYP27A1 CYP2R1 GAPDHForward primer (59 R39) GCTCTTGGAGCAAGTGATG TTGGAGGCATATCAACTGTGGT GAAGGTGAAGGTCGGAGTCReverse primer (59 R39) AGCATCCGTATAGAGCGC CTCGGCCATATCTGGAATTGAG GAAGATGGTGATGGGATTTCProducts (bp) 196 153doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052053.tDetection of 25OHD3 ProductionCells from 3 donors were treated with 1000 nM vitamin D3 12926553 (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) for 1, 4, 12, 24 or 48 h, after which supernatants were collected, and the cells were scraped in PBS containing 0.2 Triton X-100 and stored at 280uC. Prior to use, cell lysates were sonicated on ice in a sonifier cell disrupter for 2615 s. The levels of 25OHD3 in cell supernatants and cell lysates were detected using a 25OHD3 radioimmunoassay kit (DiaSorin, Stillwater, MN, USA) with a sensitivity of 1.5 ng/mL.vitamin D3 (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) for another 12 h. Then, the 25OHD3 concentrations in.

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