Iability did not differ substantially among the 4 groups, all subjects were

Iability did not differ substantially among the 4 groups, all subjects were subsequently analyzed as a single group.ResultsThe 100 subjects were recruited over one year. Clinical characteristics of the 4 groups studied are presented in Table 22948146 1. Of the 1500 potential blood samples, there were only 8 missing samples, 3 from a subject who was imprisoned, 2 from a patient hospitalized with cellulitis, 1 due to weather conditions, and 2 from a subject who underwent hip surgery. Two subsequent CRP measurements in this latter patient were postponed by a few weeks each because of this event. These were the only postponements in CRP measurements due to a concomitant inflammatory condition. During the study, there was only one acute vascular event, an acute coronary syndrome in a 23977191 subject of the recurrent events group that occurred midway between month6 and month-9 blood draws.Quantitative CRP AnalysisUsing individual level SD estimates, the median SD values within-day, within-week, between-weeks and between-months CRP values were 0.07, 0.19, 0.36 and 0.63 mg/L, respectively. Estimating the SD parameter across subjects resulted in CRP SD values of 0.24, 2.03, 2.18 and 2.77 mg/L for within-day, withinweek, between-weeks and between-months, respectively. The much larger values across subjects reflect widely differing mean values between subjects, which are eliminated in within-subject SD estimates. Our hierarchical model estimated the global CRP mean to be 5.0 mg/L (95 CrI: 3.2, 7.0), with a between-subject SD of 1.8 mg/L (95 CrI: 1.4, 2.3). The presence of adjudicated inflammation status raised the mean by 0.3 mg/L (95 CrI: 0.1, 0.5). The effect of aspirin use and male sex lowered the CRP mean by 0.5 mg/L (95 CrI: 21.8, 0.6), and 2.6 mg/L (95 CrI: 24.1, 21.1), respectively, while increasing BMI raised the mean by 0.2 mg/L per BMI unit (95 CrI: 0.1, 0.4). Aspirin use, BMI, and sex also had small effects on the daily and weekly SDIntergroup CRP ResultsThe 15 CRP values of all subjects by group are displayed in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. Median CRP values among the 4 groupsCRP VariabilityFigure 4. Display of all CRP values of subjects MedChemExpress PHCCC without coronary artery disease (CAD). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060759.gestimates. Other variables that were tried in the model to explain the variability of CRP MedChemExpress ITI 007 included clinical group, left ventricular ejection fraction, and use of angiotensin modulators or lipidlowering drugs, but these were eliminated from the final model, in large part because they were highly correlated with variables retained in the model, and so did not add sufficient additional predictive power.Qualitative CRP Overview Based on the 2 mg/L Risk ThresholdOf the 100 subjects, 35 had consistently low-risk CRP values (,2 mg/L) and 19 had consistently high-risk values ( 2 mg/L). The remaining 46 subjects changed risk category at least once during the study. Nineteen of them had a predominant low-risk pattern yet they had 1? exceptions in the high-risk range. Seven had a predominantly high-risk pattern yet they had 1? exceptions in the low-risk range. The remaining 21 of these 46 subjects had an inconsistent pattern with 4 values in both low-risk and high-risk ranges and this always included changes outside of the week with the 5 daily measurements. The least variability was observed in the same day measurements. Based on the initial baseline morning measurement, only 2 subjects changed risk category at a subsequent measurement during the same day.Iability did not differ substantially among the 4 groups, all subjects were subsequently analyzed as a single group.ResultsThe 100 subjects were recruited over one year. Clinical characteristics of the 4 groups studied are presented in Table 22948146 1. Of the 1500 potential blood samples, there were only 8 missing samples, 3 from a subject who was imprisoned, 2 from a patient hospitalized with cellulitis, 1 due to weather conditions, and 2 from a subject who underwent hip surgery. Two subsequent CRP measurements in this latter patient were postponed by a few weeks each because of this event. These were the only postponements in CRP measurements due to a concomitant inflammatory condition. During the study, there was only one acute vascular event, an acute coronary syndrome in a 23977191 subject of the recurrent events group that occurred midway between month6 and month-9 blood draws.Quantitative CRP AnalysisUsing individual level SD estimates, the median SD values within-day, within-week, between-weeks and between-months CRP values were 0.07, 0.19, 0.36 and 0.63 mg/L, respectively. Estimating the SD parameter across subjects resulted in CRP SD values of 0.24, 2.03, 2.18 and 2.77 mg/L for within-day, withinweek, between-weeks and between-months, respectively. The much larger values across subjects reflect widely differing mean values between subjects, which are eliminated in within-subject SD estimates. Our hierarchical model estimated the global CRP mean to be 5.0 mg/L (95 CrI: 3.2, 7.0), with a between-subject SD of 1.8 mg/L (95 CrI: 1.4, 2.3). The presence of adjudicated inflammation status raised the mean by 0.3 mg/L (95 CrI: 0.1, 0.5). The effect of aspirin use and male sex lowered the CRP mean by 0.5 mg/L (95 CrI: 21.8, 0.6), and 2.6 mg/L (95 CrI: 24.1, 21.1), respectively, while increasing BMI raised the mean by 0.2 mg/L per BMI unit (95 CrI: 0.1, 0.4). Aspirin use, BMI, and sex also had small effects on the daily and weekly SDIntergroup CRP ResultsThe 15 CRP values of all subjects by group are displayed in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. Median CRP values among the 4 groupsCRP VariabilityFigure 4. Display of all CRP values of subjects without coronary artery disease (CAD). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060759.gestimates. Other variables that were tried in the model to explain the variability of CRP included clinical group, left ventricular ejection fraction, and use of angiotensin modulators or lipidlowering drugs, but these were eliminated from the final model, in large part because they were highly correlated with variables retained in the model, and so did not add sufficient additional predictive power.Qualitative CRP Overview Based on the 2 mg/L Risk ThresholdOf the 100 subjects, 35 had consistently low-risk CRP values (,2 mg/L) and 19 had consistently high-risk values ( 2 mg/L). The remaining 46 subjects changed risk category at least once during the study. Nineteen of them had a predominant low-risk pattern yet they had 1? exceptions in the high-risk range. Seven had a predominantly high-risk pattern yet they had 1? exceptions in the low-risk range. The remaining 21 of these 46 subjects had an inconsistent pattern with 4 values in both low-risk and high-risk ranges and this always included changes outside of the week with the 5 daily measurements. The least variability was observed in the same day measurements. Based on the initial baseline morning measurement, only 2 subjects changed risk category at a subsequent measurement during the same day.

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