Ith influenza virus infection [11], and attenuates carrageenan-induced lung injury [4], LPS-induced acute

Ith influenza virus infection [11], and attenuates carrageenan-induced lung injury [4], LPS-induced acute respiratory stress syndrome [12], and OVA-induced allergic asthma [13]. In the gut, GA and a formulation called Si-Ni-San containing GA, ameliorate inflammation-mediated pathology in a mouse model of colitis [14], and are associated with decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-c, IL-12, TNF-a, and IL-17, and increased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-b. GA-induced anti-inflammatory cytokine expression also was demonstrated in a gut ischemia-reperfusion model [15]. In contrast to GA, less in vivo data are available for GRA. Despite less direct evidence for in vivo activity, GA is rapidly metabolized into GRA [16], and it is likely that some of the K162 chemical information immune modulating effects of GA are attributable to its primary metabolite. Studies have shown intraperitoneal Microcystin-LR administration of GRA to mice in a model of visceral leshmaniasis results in reduced parasite burden [17], and repeated subcutaneous administration of GRA abrogates lung pathology associated with Staphylococcal pneumonia [18]. In addition, we recently have shown that GRA reduces lesion size and virulence gene expression in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection [19]. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that GA and GRA modulate immune responsesGRA Induces ILF Formationto a variety of infectious agents, and regulate cell stress responses in chronic inflammatory environments, suggesting potential of these purified compounds to be used 1313429 as therapeutics or immune adjuvants. There are little data however, that address 1480666 whether these compounds have similar activity when taken orally, and whether purified compounds or crude extracts commonly used as dietary supplements affect host defense responses through this route of administration. In this study, potential mechanisms of immune system modulating activity of orally administered GRA were investigated. Analysis of cytokine gene expression in small intestinal tissue following administration of GRA revealed a specific pattern of chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression that was predictive of B cell recruitment to the gut mucosa. Increases in CD19+ B cells in the small intestinal lamina propria were observed in GRA-treated mice, and histological analyses identified B220+ B cell clusters with morphology and cell content consistent with structures of isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). The ability of GRA to induce lymphoid tissue maturation independently of ectopic antigenic stimulus suggests GRA affects immune cell responses in the gut and activates signaling pathways favorable to modulation of mucosal B cell populations. Using the adult mouse model of rotavirus infection, we further show that GRA shortened the duration of viral antigen shedding, suggesting the changes in gene expression and lymphocyte recruitment to the intestine induced by GRA likely is functionally relevant in enteric virus infection.(Qiagen) at 4uC for a minimum of 18 hrs. All sections were devoid of Peyer’s Patches. RNA was extracted with the RNeasy system (Qiagen) and quantified with a Nanodrop 1000 (Fisher Scientific). Cytokine transcripts were measured with the SABiosciences Mouse Inflammatory Cytokine Array (PAMM-011A) or Custom Mouse RT2 ProfilerTM. Custom arrays included Cxcr5, Ccl19, Ccl21b, Cxcl13, Lta, Ltb, Ccr6, Ccr7, Ccr9, Ifng, and Il10. One mg of RNA was reverse transcribed with RT2 First Strand kit (SABiosc.Ith influenza virus infection [11], and attenuates carrageenan-induced lung injury [4], LPS-induced acute respiratory stress syndrome [12], and OVA-induced allergic asthma [13]. In the gut, GA and a formulation called Si-Ni-San containing GA, ameliorate inflammation-mediated pathology in a mouse model of colitis [14], and are associated with decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-c, IL-12, TNF-a, and IL-17, and increased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-b. GA-induced anti-inflammatory cytokine expression also was demonstrated in a gut ischemia-reperfusion model [15]. In contrast to GA, less in vivo data are available for GRA. Despite less direct evidence for in vivo activity, GA is rapidly metabolized into GRA [16], and it is likely that some of the immune modulating effects of GA are attributable to its primary metabolite. Studies have shown intraperitoneal administration of GRA to mice in a model of visceral leshmaniasis results in reduced parasite burden [17], and repeated subcutaneous administration of GRA abrogates lung pathology associated with Staphylococcal pneumonia [18]. In addition, we recently have shown that GRA reduces lesion size and virulence gene expression in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection [19]. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that GA and GRA modulate immune responsesGRA Induces ILF Formationto a variety of infectious agents, and regulate cell stress responses in chronic inflammatory environments, suggesting potential of these purified compounds to be used 1313429 as therapeutics or immune adjuvants. There are little data however, that address 1480666 whether these compounds have similar activity when taken orally, and whether purified compounds or crude extracts commonly used as dietary supplements affect host defense responses through this route of administration. In this study, potential mechanisms of immune system modulating activity of orally administered GRA were investigated. Analysis of cytokine gene expression in small intestinal tissue following administration of GRA revealed a specific pattern of chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression that was predictive of B cell recruitment to the gut mucosa. Increases in CD19+ B cells in the small intestinal lamina propria were observed in GRA-treated mice, and histological analyses identified B220+ B cell clusters with morphology and cell content consistent with structures of isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). The ability of GRA to induce lymphoid tissue maturation independently of ectopic antigenic stimulus suggests GRA affects immune cell responses in the gut and activates signaling pathways favorable to modulation of mucosal B cell populations. Using the adult mouse model of rotavirus infection, we further show that GRA shortened the duration of viral antigen shedding, suggesting the changes in gene expression and lymphocyte recruitment to the intestine induced by GRA likely is functionally relevant in enteric virus infection.(Qiagen) at 4uC for a minimum of 18 hrs. All sections were devoid of Peyer’s Patches. RNA was extracted with the RNeasy system (Qiagen) and quantified with a Nanodrop 1000 (Fisher Scientific). Cytokine transcripts were measured with the SABiosciences Mouse Inflammatory Cytokine Array (PAMM-011A) or Custom Mouse RT2 ProfilerTM. Custom arrays included Cxcr5, Ccl19, Ccl21b, Cxcl13, Lta, Ltb, Ccr6, Ccr7, Ccr9, Ifng, and Il10. One mg of RNA was reverse transcribed with RT2 First Strand kit (SABiosc.

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