Irst step toward examining Kaiso’s potential role in cell cycle

Irst step toward examining Kaiso’s potential role in cell cycle regulation we examined cyclin D1 protein levels by westernDiscussion Kaiso Binds and Represses the cyclin D1 PromoterKaiso is a dual-specificity transcription factor with sequenceand methyl-CpG-specific transcriptional repression abilityKaiso Represses cyclin D1 via KBS and Me-CpG SitesFigure 6. Kaiso represses expression of the minimal cyclin D1 promoter-reporter in a KBS and methyl-CpG dependent manner. (A) Reporter plasmid methylation was Title Loaded From File confirmed by digesting the plasmid DNA with the CpG-methylation specific restriction enzyme HpaII. (B) Kaiso overexpression caused a dose-dependent decrease in luciferase gene expression from the minimal cyclin D1 promoter reporter possessing active KBS but devoid of methyl-CpG sites (blue bars). Similarly, a dose-dependent decrease was Title Loaded From File observed when the KBS and CpG sites were both active (red bars). (C) Kaiso overexpression caused dose-dependent repression of luciferase activity in the presence of active methyl-CpG sites and mutated KBSs. (D) Ectopic Kaiso expression had little to no effect on the reporter construct when both the KBS and CpG sites 25331948 were inactivated. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050398.g[10,19,21]. In this study we showed that Kaiso exhibits dualspecificity DNA binding to the human cyclin D1 promoter; Kaiso bound to the -1067 KBS region of the cyclin D1 promoter in a sequence-specific manner and it bound multiple CpG rich sites within the cyclin D1 promoter region in a methylation-dependent but KBS-independent manner (Figures 1, 2, 3). While the significance of Kaiso’s sequence-specific versus methyl-CpGspecific DNA binding remains largely unknown, our data shows that both types of DNA-binding can occur independently at one gene promoter locus. Previously, Prokhortchouk et al., [19] showed that the Kaiso zinc fingers preferentially associate with consecutive methylated CpG-dinucleotides, and that binding affinity decreases if there are one or more nucleotides between the consecutive CpG-dinucleotides. While our findings support those of Prokhortchouk et al., we also showed that the presence of consecutive CpGdinucleotides is not a strict requirement for Kaiso DNA binding (Figure 2A B; CpG2 oligonucleotide). Furthermore, binding to methyl-CpG sites can also occur in the presence of a core KBS, as observed in this study. The presence of a core KBS sequence in one of the CpG rich regions motivated us to examine Kaiso binding to this region using an oligonucleotide (CpG7) containing the KBS and CpGs. We found that Kaiso was able to bind this +69 core KBS region in a methyl-CpG-specific manner, and that binding required the presence of the two CpG-dinucleotides upstream of the core KBS (Figure 4). Mutation of this core KBS sequence decreased but didKaiso Represses cyclin D1 via KBS and Me-CpG SitesFigure 7. Kaiso depletion alters cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation in HCT116 cells. (A) Depletion of endogenous Kaiso with Kaiso-specific siRNA resulted in an , 1.7-fold increase in cyclin D1 protein levels in HCT116 cells. (B) Kaiso depletion in HCT116 cells resulted in an , 2-fold increase in cell proliferation. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050398.gnot abolish Kaiso binding, suggesting that the role of this core KBS in close proximity to single CpGs is most likely to stabilize Kaiso DNA binding. Our data support those of Sasai et al., [7], who demonstrated that Kaiso and the Kaiso-like zinc finger protein ZBTB4 bind single m.Irst step toward examining Kaiso’s potential role in cell cycle regulation we examined cyclin D1 protein levels by westernDiscussion Kaiso Binds and Represses the cyclin D1 PromoterKaiso is a dual-specificity transcription factor with sequenceand methyl-CpG-specific transcriptional repression abilityKaiso Represses cyclin D1 via KBS and Me-CpG SitesFigure 6. Kaiso represses expression of the minimal cyclin D1 promoter-reporter in a KBS and methyl-CpG dependent manner. (A) Reporter plasmid methylation was confirmed by digesting the plasmid DNA with the CpG-methylation specific restriction enzyme HpaII. (B) Kaiso overexpression caused a dose-dependent decrease in luciferase gene expression from the minimal cyclin D1 promoter reporter possessing active KBS but devoid of methyl-CpG sites (blue bars). Similarly, a dose-dependent decrease was observed when the KBS and CpG sites were both active (red bars). (C) Kaiso overexpression caused dose-dependent repression of luciferase activity in the presence of active methyl-CpG sites and mutated KBSs. (D) Ectopic Kaiso expression had little to no effect on the reporter construct when both the KBS and CpG sites 25331948 were inactivated. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050398.g[10,19,21]. In this study we showed that Kaiso exhibits dualspecificity DNA binding to the human cyclin D1 promoter; Kaiso bound to the -1067 KBS region of the cyclin D1 promoter in a sequence-specific manner and it bound multiple CpG rich sites within the cyclin D1 promoter region in a methylation-dependent but KBS-independent manner (Figures 1, 2, 3). While the significance of Kaiso’s sequence-specific versus methyl-CpGspecific DNA binding remains largely unknown, our data shows that both types of DNA-binding can occur independently at one gene promoter locus. Previously, Prokhortchouk et al., [19] showed that the Kaiso zinc fingers preferentially associate with consecutive methylated CpG-dinucleotides, and that binding affinity decreases if there are one or more nucleotides between the consecutive CpG-dinucleotides. While our findings support those of Prokhortchouk et al., we also showed that the presence of consecutive CpGdinucleotides is not a strict requirement for Kaiso DNA binding (Figure 2A B; CpG2 oligonucleotide). Furthermore, binding to methyl-CpG sites can also occur in the presence of a core KBS, as observed in this study. The presence of a core KBS sequence in one of the CpG rich regions motivated us to examine Kaiso binding to this region using an oligonucleotide (CpG7) containing the KBS and CpGs. We found that Kaiso was able to bind this +69 core KBS region in a methyl-CpG-specific manner, and that binding required the presence of the two CpG-dinucleotides upstream of the core KBS (Figure 4). Mutation of this core KBS sequence decreased but didKaiso Represses cyclin D1 via KBS and Me-CpG SitesFigure 7. Kaiso depletion alters cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation in HCT116 cells. (A) Depletion of endogenous Kaiso with Kaiso-specific siRNA resulted in an , 1.7-fold increase in cyclin D1 protein levels in HCT116 cells. (B) Kaiso depletion in HCT116 cells resulted in an , 2-fold increase in cell proliferation. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050398.gnot abolish Kaiso binding, suggesting that the role of this core KBS in close proximity to single CpGs is most likely to stabilize Kaiso DNA binding. Our data support those of Sasai et al., [7], who demonstrated that Kaiso and the Kaiso-like zinc finger protein ZBTB4 bind single m.

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