GR heart [147]. Similar to that seen with induction of hypertension, the

GR heart [147]. Similar to that seen with induction of hypertension, the overall cardiac growth response to induction of diabetes, assessed by echocardiography, was not different CV205-502 hydrochloride site between the IUGR and non-IUGR hearts. Importantly, however, the level of fibrosis was significantly greater in the IUGR diabetic hearts compared to non-IUGR diabetic hearts [147]. Collectively, our findings suggest that the IUGR heart may be better able to structurally adapt to a haemodynamic challenge, but not to the challenge of hyperglycaemia. However, this may be a somewhat simplistic interpretation of findings given that the mechanisms of the induction of cardiac hypertrophy are complex and both secondary insults are likely to involve haemodynamic and endocrine mechanisms. There have been a number of studies that have examined the effect of a high salt diet administered postnatally, as a secondary lifestyle insult, on blood pressure in IUGR offspring [95,117,201?03]. Interestingly, several studies have shown that the increase in blood pressure in response to a high salt diet is similar between IUGR offspring and non-IUGR offspring [117,204], whereas some report salt-sensitive hypertension [93] and others report a reduction in blood pressure [95]. In our maternal protein restriction model it was previously shown that there was no difference in the elevation of blood pressure response to a high salt diet between LPD and NPD offspring [117]. Given that a high salt diet, is linked to induction of cardiac fibrosis [205,206] it would be interesting in future studies to compare the structural remodelling in the LPD IUGR offspring relative to NPD AG-221 cost controls following the feeding of a high salt diet in adolescence/adulthood. 11. Conclusions In summary, the findings of this review highlight the importance of maternal diet on the long-term cardiovascular outcomes of the offspring. Upon comparison of the findings between different laboratories using rat models of maternal protein restriction we highlight the many differences in the cardiovascular phenotype of the offspring between studies, which may relate to the rat strains studied, severity of the dietary protein restriction and the timing of the diet administration. In addition, this review emphasizes the complexity of the mechanisms relating to the developmental programming of heart disease and highlights directions for future research that are required to establish the importance of the periconceptional, pregnancy, lactational and post-weaning windows in life-long developmental programming.Nutrients 2015, 7 AcknowledgmentsVladislava Zohdi was supported by an Australian Postgraduate Research Award and Kyungjoon Lim was supported by National Health and Medical Research Council scholarship whilst conducting this study. Author Contributions Vladislava Zohdi and Kyungjoon Lim wrote the manuscript, Vladislava Zohdi made the table, made Kyungjoon Lim the figure. James T. Pearson and Mary Jane Black critically revised the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References Barker, D.J.; Gluckman, P.D.; Godfrey, K.M.; Harding, J.E.; Owens, J.A.; Robinson, J.S. Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Lancet 1993, 341, 938?41. 2. Barker, D.J. Intra-uterine programming of the adult cardiovascular system. Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. 1997, 6, 106?10. 3. Rich-Edwards, J.W.; Stampfer, M.J.; Manson, J.E.; Rosner, B.; Hankinson, S.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Willett, W.C.; Hennekens.GR heart [147]. Similar to that seen with induction of hypertension, the overall cardiac growth response to induction of diabetes, assessed by echocardiography, was not different between the IUGR and non-IUGR hearts. Importantly, however, the level of fibrosis was significantly greater in the IUGR diabetic hearts compared to non-IUGR diabetic hearts [147]. Collectively, our findings suggest that the IUGR heart may be better able to structurally adapt to a haemodynamic challenge, but not to the challenge of hyperglycaemia. However, this may be a somewhat simplistic interpretation of findings given that the mechanisms of the induction of cardiac hypertrophy are complex and both secondary insults are likely to involve haemodynamic and endocrine mechanisms. There have been a number of studies that have examined the effect of a high salt diet administered postnatally, as a secondary lifestyle insult, on blood pressure in IUGR offspring [95,117,201?03]. Interestingly, several studies have shown that the increase in blood pressure in response to a high salt diet is similar between IUGR offspring and non-IUGR offspring [117,204], whereas some report salt-sensitive hypertension [93] and others report a reduction in blood pressure [95]. In our maternal protein restriction model it was previously shown that there was no difference in the elevation of blood pressure response to a high salt diet between LPD and NPD offspring [117]. Given that a high salt diet, is linked to induction of cardiac fibrosis [205,206] it would be interesting in future studies to compare the structural remodelling in the LPD IUGR offspring relative to NPD controls following the feeding of a high salt diet in adolescence/adulthood. 11. Conclusions In summary, the findings of this review highlight the importance of maternal diet on the long-term cardiovascular outcomes of the offspring. Upon comparison of the findings between different laboratories using rat models of maternal protein restriction we highlight the many differences in the cardiovascular phenotype of the offspring between studies, which may relate to the rat strains studied, severity of the dietary protein restriction and the timing of the diet administration. In addition, this review emphasizes the complexity of the mechanisms relating to the developmental programming of heart disease and highlights directions for future research that are required to establish the importance of the periconceptional, pregnancy, lactational and post-weaning windows in life-long developmental programming.Nutrients 2015, 7 AcknowledgmentsVladislava Zohdi was supported by an Australian Postgraduate Research Award and Kyungjoon Lim was supported by National Health and Medical Research Council scholarship whilst conducting this study. Author Contributions Vladislava Zohdi and Kyungjoon Lim wrote the manuscript, Vladislava Zohdi made the table, made Kyungjoon Lim the figure. James T. Pearson and Mary Jane Black critically revised the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References Barker, D.J.; Gluckman, P.D.; Godfrey, K.M.; Harding, J.E.; Owens, J.A.; Robinson, J.S. Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Lancet 1993, 341, 938?41. 2. Barker, D.J. Intra-uterine programming of the adult cardiovascular system. Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. 1997, 6, 106?10. 3. Rich-Edwards, J.W.; Stampfer, M.J.; Manson, J.E.; Rosner, B.; Hankinson, S.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Willett, W.C.; Hennekens.

Leave a Reply