Ue of 141 kDa was due to the elongated shape of the

Ue of 141 kDa was due to the elongated shape of the tetramer (Fig. 1d). GFP-Bak tetramers crystallized, solely mediated by the contacts between GFP AZD3759 cost molecules (Supplementary Information Figure S1b). The crystal structure of the GFP-Bak tetramer was refined to 2.8 ?resolution (Table 1 and Fig. 1d; PDB ID: 5KTG). In this structure, two GFP molecules were bridged by the mouse BGH, which in turn formed a tetramer around a two-fold symmetry axis (C2-axis) (Fig. 1d). The overall organization of the GFP-Bak tetramer was different from any of the GFP-BGH structures known29,34. Despite this, the folding of the mouse BGH itself was similar to that of the human Bak or Bax29,34 (Fig. 1e,f). The BGH unit was formed by two anti-parallel 2-3 extended helices in the upper layer and the two 4-5 helical hairpins symmetrically arranged in the lower layer (Fig. 1e). The backbone atom root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) values calculated between the mouse BGH and the human Bax and Bak BGH were 1.57 ?and 5.01, respectively (Fig. 1f), indicating that the mouse Bak BGH is similar to that of human Bak. The larger RMSD for human Bax was due to the twisting of the upper helical layer of Bax BGH relative to the lower one (Fig. 1f, right panel).To determine how Bak homodimers oligomerize in the mitochondrial outer membrane, we mapped the proximity of amino acid residues in the Bak oligomeric pore using disulfide cross-linking35 (Fig. 2a). Stable expression of full length Bak mutants containing single, double and triple cysteine substitutions at strategic positions was performed in Bax-/-Bak-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) (see Methods). These Bak mutant proteins targeted to the mitochondria normally, as evidenced by the Western blot analysis (Fig. 2b). The parent cysteine-less Bak (lane 1, Fig. 2b) and the cysteine substitution mutants (lanes 2?1, Fig. 2b) were expressed in varying quantities relative to the wild-type Bak (lane 12, Fig. 2b) (from the lowest 80 for 162C to the highest 130 for 111C). These mutant proteins were active in apoptotic pore formation in the mitochondrial outer membrane, as evidenced by the efficient release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria (Fig. 2c ). When the Bak proteins were activated by p7/p15 Bid, approximately 80?0 percent of the cytochrome c molecules were released from the mitochondria except for mutant 111C (Fig. 2c,d). In the absence of p7/p15 Bid, less than 20 percent of the cytochrome c was released in all the cases (Fig. 2c,e). These data indicated that the cysteine substitution Bak mutant proteins expressed in the MEF mitochondria were mostly intact in their structure and apoptotic function. In the mouse BGH structure, the -carbon atom (C) of residue 69 on helix 2 in one 2-5 polypeptide chain is in close proximity to the C of reside 111 on helix 4 in the other paired polypeptide (spheres in purple and cyan, respectively, Fig. 2a). The shortest distance between the -carbon atoms of the cysteines introduced at these two locations is 4.6 ?in the BGHs of the GFP-Bak tetramer and the thiols of these residues can be in SB 202190 chemical information closer proximity (Fig. 1d). Thus, upon oxidation by copper(II)(1,10-phenanthroline)3 reagent, two disulfide bonds will be formed between the cysteine residues (i.e., for 69C/111C and 69C/111C) due to the symmetric nature of BGH (Fig. 2a). This will result in a Bak dimer with a shifted mobility in the denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) as previously shown in human Bak by Dewson et al.24.Ue of 141 kDa was due to the elongated shape of the tetramer (Fig. 1d). GFP-Bak tetramers crystallized, solely mediated by the contacts between GFP molecules (Supplementary Information Figure S1b). The crystal structure of the GFP-Bak tetramer was refined to 2.8 ?resolution (Table 1 and Fig. 1d; PDB ID: 5KTG). In this structure, two GFP molecules were bridged by the mouse BGH, which in turn formed a tetramer around a two-fold symmetry axis (C2-axis) (Fig. 1d). The overall organization of the GFP-Bak tetramer was different from any of the GFP-BGH structures known29,34. Despite this, the folding of the mouse BGH itself was similar to that of the human Bak or Bax29,34 (Fig. 1e,f). The BGH unit was formed by two anti-parallel 2-3 extended helices in the upper layer and the two 4-5 helical hairpins symmetrically arranged in the lower layer (Fig. 1e). The backbone atom root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) values calculated between the mouse BGH and the human Bax and Bak BGH were 1.57 ?and 5.01, respectively (Fig. 1f), indicating that the mouse Bak BGH is similar to that of human Bak. The larger RMSD for human Bax was due to the twisting of the upper helical layer of Bax BGH relative to the lower one (Fig. 1f, right panel).To determine how Bak homodimers oligomerize in the mitochondrial outer membrane, we mapped the proximity of amino acid residues in the Bak oligomeric pore using disulfide cross-linking35 (Fig. 2a). Stable expression of full length Bak mutants containing single, double and triple cysteine substitutions at strategic positions was performed in Bax-/-Bak-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) (see Methods). These Bak mutant proteins targeted to the mitochondria normally, as evidenced by the Western blot analysis (Fig. 2b). The parent cysteine-less Bak (lane 1, Fig. 2b) and the cysteine substitution mutants (lanes 2?1, Fig. 2b) were expressed in varying quantities relative to the wild-type Bak (lane 12, Fig. 2b) (from the lowest 80 for 162C to the highest 130 for 111C). These mutant proteins were active in apoptotic pore formation in the mitochondrial outer membrane, as evidenced by the efficient release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria (Fig. 2c ). When the Bak proteins were activated by p7/p15 Bid, approximately 80?0 percent of the cytochrome c molecules were released from the mitochondria except for mutant 111C (Fig. 2c,d). In the absence of p7/p15 Bid, less than 20 percent of the cytochrome c was released in all the cases (Fig. 2c,e). These data indicated that the cysteine substitution Bak mutant proteins expressed in the MEF mitochondria were mostly intact in their structure and apoptotic function. In the mouse BGH structure, the -carbon atom (C) of residue 69 on helix 2 in one 2-5 polypeptide chain is in close proximity to the C of reside 111 on helix 4 in the other paired polypeptide (spheres in purple and cyan, respectively, Fig. 2a). The shortest distance between the -carbon atoms of the cysteines introduced at these two locations is 4.6 ?in the BGHs of the GFP-Bak tetramer and the thiols of these residues can be in closer proximity (Fig. 1d). Thus, upon oxidation by copper(II)(1,10-phenanthroline)3 reagent, two disulfide bonds will be formed between the cysteine residues (i.e., for 69C/111C and 69C/111C) due to the symmetric nature of BGH (Fig. 2a). This will result in a Bak dimer with a shifted mobility in the denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) as previously shown in human Bak by Dewson et al.24.

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