When they originate in the deep layers (V and VI) of

When they originate in the deep layers (V and VI) of one area and terminate in the upper layers (mostly layer I, but often also in layer II and the upper part of III) of another area. `Feedback’ connections more parsimoniously describe those that originate in an area with less elaborate laminar structure than the area of termination (Barbas Rempel-Clower, 1997). Connections that link areas of the same type, whether they are BAY1217389 side effects neighboring or distant, involve most layers [they originate in all layers (except layer IV) of one area and terminate in all layers (including layer IV) of another area]. This principle, which we call the structural model for connections, is relational and based on the magnitude of the differences in laminar structure between linked cortices. Within the cortical motor system, which includes area 6 (also known as the dorsal and ventral premotor areas), connections often involve several layers because the differences in structure among premotor areas are not large. The subtlety of the laminar patterns of connections within the motor-premotor system has led to approximate description more than thorough study [for review see (Shipp, 2005)]. But pathways from the premotor cortices toNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptEur J Neurosci. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 June 01.Garc -Cabezas and BarbasPagearea 4 target more prominently layer I, consistent with the idea that area 4 is at the pinnacle of the graded changes in laminar structure of the cortical motor system (Barbas Pandya, 1987). In conclusion, including area 4 in the same cortical type as agranular areas that never had a layer IV is a conceptual error and more consequential than failing to find a layer that is, after all, hidden in the rich forest of neuropil of the neurons above and below.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsProtocols describing procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Harvard Medical School and Boston University School of Medicine in accordance with NIH guidelines (DHEW Publication no. [NIH] 80-22, revised 1996, Resiquimod site Office of Science and Health Reports, DRR/NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA). This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (R01NS024760) and the National Institute of Mental Health (R01MH057414); and by the Center of Excellence for Learning in Education, Science and Technology (CELEST), a National Science Foundation Science of Learning Center (NSF SBE-0354378). M. ? Garc -Cabezas received a fellowship (Grant for Research in Foreign Universities and Centers) from Fundaci Alfonso Mart Escudero (Spain).
Focus on QualityWhat Do Cars and Cancer Care Have in Common? More Than You Might ExpectWhen ASCO and the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship partnered to form the Cancer Quality Alliance, one of its intentions was to adapt approaches to quality from a variety of settings.1 Yet even the most visionary among the Alliance organizers might not have thought to apply to cancer therapy the same quality initiatives used by automobile manufacturers. “When we are confronted with a medical error or bad outcome, we pose the question `How do we redesign the process so there won’t be errors?'” explains Jacobs. “We’ve found most errors are process failures, not the result of incompetence.” Often the problem is miscommunication or a lack.When they originate in the deep layers (V and VI) of one area and terminate in the upper layers (mostly layer I, but often also in layer II and the upper part of III) of another area. `Feedback’ connections more parsimoniously describe those that originate in an area with less elaborate laminar structure than the area of termination (Barbas Rempel-Clower, 1997). Connections that link areas of the same type, whether they are neighboring or distant, involve most layers [they originate in all layers (except layer IV) of one area and terminate in all layers (including layer IV) of another area]. This principle, which we call the structural model for connections, is relational and based on the magnitude of the differences in laminar structure between linked cortices. Within the cortical motor system, which includes area 6 (also known as the dorsal and ventral premotor areas), connections often involve several layers because the differences in structure among premotor areas are not large. The subtlety of the laminar patterns of connections within the motor-premotor system has led to approximate description more than thorough study [for review see (Shipp, 2005)]. But pathways from the premotor cortices toNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptEur J Neurosci. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 June 01.Garc -Cabezas and BarbasPagearea 4 target more prominently layer I, consistent with the idea that area 4 is at the pinnacle of the graded changes in laminar structure of the cortical motor system (Barbas Pandya, 1987). In conclusion, including area 4 in the same cortical type as agranular areas that never had a layer IV is a conceptual error and more consequential than failing to find a layer that is, after all, hidden in the rich forest of neuropil of the neurons above and below.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsProtocols describing procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Harvard Medical School and Boston University School of Medicine in accordance with NIH guidelines (DHEW Publication no. [NIH] 80-22, revised 1996, Office of Science and Health Reports, DRR/NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA). This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (R01NS024760) and the National Institute of Mental Health (R01MH057414); and by the Center of Excellence for Learning in Education, Science and Technology (CELEST), a National Science Foundation Science of Learning Center (NSF SBE-0354378). M. ? Garc -Cabezas received a fellowship (Grant for Research in Foreign Universities and Centers) from Fundaci Alfonso Mart Escudero (Spain).
Focus on QualityWhat Do Cars and Cancer Care Have in Common? More Than You Might ExpectWhen ASCO and the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship partnered to form the Cancer Quality Alliance, one of its intentions was to adapt approaches to quality from a variety of settings.1 Yet even the most visionary among the Alliance organizers might not have thought to apply to cancer therapy the same quality initiatives used by automobile manufacturers. “When we are confronted with a medical error or bad outcome, we pose the question `How do we redesign the process so there won’t be errors?'” explains Jacobs. “We’ve found most errors are process failures, not the result of incompetence.” Often the problem is miscommunication or a lack.

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