Dren with more internalizing behaviors at age 10 years exhibited more externalizing

Dren with more internalizing behaviors at age 10 years exhibited more externalizing behaviors at age 14 years. Three-wave cascades–One Z-DEVD-FMK molecular weight significant 3-characteristic Z-DEVD-FMKMedChemExpress Caspase-3 Inhibitor 3-wave cascade and three significant 2-characteristic 3-wave cascades also emerged. Age 14-year externalizing behaviors were predicted by age 4-year social competence (standardized indirect effect = -. 14, p < .05) with the effect mediated by age 10-year internalizing behaviors and age 10-year externalizing behaviors: Children who were of lower social competence at age 4 years exhibited more internalizing and externalizing behaviors at age 10 years, and at age 14 years they exhibited more externalizing behaviors. Age 14-year externalizing behaviors were also predicted by age 4-year internalizing behaviors (standardized indirect effect = .04, p < .05) with the effect mediated by age 10-year internalizing behaviors: Children who exhibited more internalizing behaviors at age 4 years exhibited more internalizing behaviors at age 10 years, and at age 14 years they exhibited more externalizing behaviors. Age 14-year internalizing behaviors were predicted by age 4-year social competence (standardized indirect effect = -.09, p < .05) with the effect mediated by age 10-year internalizing behaviors: Children who were of lower social competence at age 4 years exhibited more internalizing behaviors at age 10 years, and at age 14 years exhibited more internalizing behaviors. Direct effects of 4-year social competence–Two plausible paths were added to the final cascade model after examining the standardized residual covariance matrix and the significant parameters suggested by the Lagrange multiplier test: Direct paths from 4-year social competence to 14-year internalizing behaviors (standardized regression coefficient = -.17, p < .05) and from 4-year social competence to 14-year social competence (standardized regression coefficient = .24, p < .05). The model fit indexes of this alternative model were slightly better than those of the final model reported earlier: S-B 2(16) = 35.48, p < .01, Robust CFI = .93, SRMR = .07. The model reproduced observed correlations with an average absolute standardized error of .05. The three significant cascade paths and the significant longitudinal cross-domain links among social competence, externalizing behaviors, and internalizing behaviors across three age periods reported earlier remained significant, and the magnitudes of the indirect effects of 4-year social competence and internalizing problems on 14-year externalizing problems, and the indirect effect of 4-year social competence on 14-year internalizing problems remained virtually unchanged in this alternative final model. The significant direct path from 4-year social competence to 14-year internalizing behaviors suggested that early childhood social competence had both direct and indirect effects (mediated by late childhood internalizing behaviors) on early adolescent internalizing behaviors.Dev Psychopathol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2012 August 06.Bornstein et al.PageCovariate analyses–Potential common cause covariates considered in this analysis included child intellectual functioning at ages 4 and 10 years and maternal education at all 3 ages. We postulated within-time correlations between covariates and child outcomes (e.g., 4year covariates with 4-year outcomes) and direct paths from covariates at an earlier time to child outcomes at a later time (i.e., from age 4-year covari.Dren with more internalizing behaviors at age 10 years exhibited more externalizing behaviors at age 14 years. Three-wave cascades–One significant 3-characteristic 3-wave cascade and three significant 2-characteristic 3-wave cascades also emerged. Age 14-year externalizing behaviors were predicted by age 4-year social competence (standardized indirect effect = -. 14, p < .05) with the effect mediated by age 10-year internalizing behaviors and age 10-year externalizing behaviors: Children who were of lower social competence at age 4 years exhibited more internalizing and externalizing behaviors at age 10 years, and at age 14 years they exhibited more externalizing behaviors. Age 14-year externalizing behaviors were also predicted by age 4-year internalizing behaviors (standardized indirect effect = .04, p < .05) with the effect mediated by age 10-year internalizing behaviors: Children who exhibited more internalizing behaviors at age 4 years exhibited more internalizing behaviors at age 10 years, and at age 14 years they exhibited more externalizing behaviors. Age 14-year internalizing behaviors were predicted by age 4-year social competence (standardized indirect effect = -.09, p < .05) with the effect mediated by age 10-year internalizing behaviors: Children who were of lower social competence at age 4 years exhibited more internalizing behaviors at age 10 years, and at age 14 years exhibited more internalizing behaviors. Direct effects of 4-year social competence–Two plausible paths were added to the final cascade model after examining the standardized residual covariance matrix and the significant parameters suggested by the Lagrange multiplier test: Direct paths from 4-year social competence to 14-year internalizing behaviors (standardized regression coefficient = -.17, p < .05) and from 4-year social competence to 14-year social competence (standardized regression coefficient = .24, p < .05). The model fit indexes of this alternative model were slightly better than those of the final model reported earlier: S-B 2(16) = 35.48, p < .01, Robust CFI = .93, SRMR = .07. The model reproduced observed correlations with an average absolute standardized error of .05. The three significant cascade paths and the significant longitudinal cross-domain links among social competence, externalizing behaviors, and internalizing behaviors across three age periods reported earlier remained significant, and the magnitudes of the indirect effects of 4-year social competence and internalizing problems on 14-year externalizing problems, and the indirect effect of 4-year social competence on 14-year internalizing problems remained virtually unchanged in this alternative final model. The significant direct path from 4-year social competence to 14-year internalizing behaviors suggested that early childhood social competence had both direct and indirect effects (mediated by late childhood internalizing behaviors) on early adolescent internalizing behaviors.Dev Psychopathol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2012 August 06.Bornstein et al.PageCovariate analyses–Potential common cause covariates considered in this analysis included child intellectual functioning at ages 4 and 10 years and maternal education at all 3 ages. We postulated within-time correlations between covariates and child outcomes (e.g., 4year covariates with 4-year outcomes) and direct paths from covariates at an earlier time to child outcomes at a later time (i.e., from age 4-year covari.

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