43 can modify lyso-GPI anchors and generate abnormal GPI lipidsFurthermore, the strongly

43 can modify lyso-GPI anchors and generate abnormal GPI lipidsFurthermore, the strongly negative genetic interaction between gup1 and cwh43 caught our attention. The lipid moiety of GPI lipids, once attached to proteins, is modified in the ER through so called GPI lipid remodeling reactions. As seen in Fig 10A, the FA on the inositol moiety is removed by Bst1, then the FA in sn-2 of the glycerol moiety is removed by the PLA2-like Per1, then a C26:0 is transferred from C26:0-CoA onto the sn-2 of the lyso-GPI anchor by Gup1, and finally the modified diacylglycerol or phosphatidic acid moiety can be exchanged for a ceramide or a ceramide-phosphate by Cwh43 [52]. All but the last step are prerequisite for an efficient export of GPI proteins out of the ER [15,53?5]. As seen in Fig 10B, the only strong negative genetic interaction in this pathway was between cwh43 and gup1, which did not make sense in the linear pathway depicted in Fig 10A, since the absence of Gup1 in this scheme ought to make the deletion of CWH43 of no consequence. Indeed, the gup1 cwh43 double mutant had a strongly negative S score of?9.9 and grew more slowly than the single mutants also in liquid culture (S7A Fig (Growth defects of mutants in the right arm of Chromosome II combined with chs1)). The same genetic interaction observed in the W303 background recently led to the proposal that the lyso-GPI anchors accumulating in gup1 may represent suitable substrates for Cwh43 [56] as indicated by the red arrow in Fig 10A. To investigate this in detail, we PX-478 mechanism of action analyzed the anchor lipids of single and double mutants after metabolic labeling with [3H]-myo-inositol. As seen in Fig 10C, bst1 and per1 cells did not make any base resistant anchor lipids, whereas gup1 produced lyso-PI and several mild base resistant anchor lipids, two of which comigrated with IPC/B and IPC/C, the typical base resistant anchor lipids of WT, whereas 3 others were not present in WT. Interestingly, not only IPC/B- and IPC/C-type anchors, but also the 3 abnormal mild base-resistant lipids were no more observed in a gup1 cwh43 double mutant. The results argue that lysoGPI anchors indeed are a substrate for Cwh43, as was also proposed by others [56]. In this report it also was proposed that ceramide anchors can be added to GPI-anchors accumulating in per1 mutants (Fig 10A), but mild base resistance of anchor lipids had not been tested and in our genetic background we can’t see any mild base resistant anchors in per1 (Fig 10C, lane 7). Moreover, it seems that in the gup1 background, Cwh43 may transfer also ceramides other than the typical phytosphingosine-C26:0 or phytosphingosine-C26:0-OH giving rise toPLOS Genetics | DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.July 27,15 /Yeast E-MAP for Identification of Membrane Transporters Operating Lipid Flip FlopFig 10. GPI anchor remodeling. (A) the classical model of the lipid remodeling pathway for GPI proteins (black arrows) and a proposed additional route (red arrow)(adapted with permission from Fig 1 of [66]). Essential genes are indicated in blue. MAG = monoacylglycerol. Treatment with HNO2 selectively cleaves the glycosidic bond between GlcN and inositol. (B) ZM241385MedChemExpress ZM241385 correlations (left) and S scores (right) of the cluster of GPI anchor remodeling enzymes. Las21 (Gpi7) adds ethanolamine-phosphate to the second mannose (panel A) during GPI lipid biosynthesis and its deletion changes the structure of the GPI anchor. (C) free lipids (FL) and GPI anchor lipid moieties of WT and different remo.43 can modify lyso-GPI anchors and generate abnormal GPI lipidsFurthermore, the strongly negative genetic interaction between gup1 and cwh43 caught our attention. The lipid moiety of GPI lipids, once attached to proteins, is modified in the ER through so called GPI lipid remodeling reactions. As seen in Fig 10A, the FA on the inositol moiety is removed by Bst1, then the FA in sn-2 of the glycerol moiety is removed by the PLA2-like Per1, then a C26:0 is transferred from C26:0-CoA onto the sn-2 of the lyso-GPI anchor by Gup1, and finally the modified diacylglycerol or phosphatidic acid moiety can be exchanged for a ceramide or a ceramide-phosphate by Cwh43 [52]. All but the last step are prerequisite for an efficient export of GPI proteins out of the ER [15,53?5]. As seen in Fig 10B, the only strong negative genetic interaction in this pathway was between cwh43 and gup1, which did not make sense in the linear pathway depicted in Fig 10A, since the absence of Gup1 in this scheme ought to make the deletion of CWH43 of no consequence. Indeed, the gup1 cwh43 double mutant had a strongly negative S score of?9.9 and grew more slowly than the single mutants also in liquid culture (S7A Fig (Growth defects of mutants in the right arm of Chromosome II combined with chs1)). The same genetic interaction observed in the W303 background recently led to the proposal that the lyso-GPI anchors accumulating in gup1 may represent suitable substrates for Cwh43 [56] as indicated by the red arrow in Fig 10A. To investigate this in detail, we analyzed the anchor lipids of single and double mutants after metabolic labeling with [3H]-myo-inositol. As seen in Fig 10C, bst1 and per1 cells did not make any base resistant anchor lipids, whereas gup1 produced lyso-PI and several mild base resistant anchor lipids, two of which comigrated with IPC/B and IPC/C, the typical base resistant anchor lipids of WT, whereas 3 others were not present in WT. Interestingly, not only IPC/B- and IPC/C-type anchors, but also the 3 abnormal mild base-resistant lipids were no more observed in a gup1 cwh43 double mutant. The results argue that lysoGPI anchors indeed are a substrate for Cwh43, as was also proposed by others [56]. In this report it also was proposed that ceramide anchors can be added to GPI-anchors accumulating in per1 mutants (Fig 10A), but mild base resistance of anchor lipids had not been tested and in our genetic background we can’t see any mild base resistant anchors in per1 (Fig 10C, lane 7). Moreover, it seems that in the gup1 background, Cwh43 may transfer also ceramides other than the typical phytosphingosine-C26:0 or phytosphingosine-C26:0-OH giving rise toPLOS Genetics | DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.July 27,15 /Yeast E-MAP for Identification of Membrane Transporters Operating Lipid Flip FlopFig 10. GPI anchor remodeling. (A) the classical model of the lipid remodeling pathway for GPI proteins (black arrows) and a proposed additional route (red arrow)(adapted with permission from Fig 1 of [66]). Essential genes are indicated in blue. MAG = monoacylglycerol. Treatment with HNO2 selectively cleaves the glycosidic bond between GlcN and inositol. (B) correlations (left) and S scores (right) of the cluster of GPI anchor remodeling enzymes. Las21 (Gpi7) adds ethanolamine-phosphate to the second mannose (panel A) during GPI lipid biosynthesis and its deletion changes the structure of the GPI anchor. (C) free lipids (FL) and GPI anchor lipid moieties of WT and different remo.

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