., violence only) as gang members. It is also the case that

., violence only) as gang members. It is also the case that prior H 4065 web variable-oriented studies have typically used all non-gang youth as a reference group, and it is possible that gang-involved youth differ less from other boys who are delinquent but not in gangs. Also relevant to our study are previous Leupeptin (hemisulfate) solubility developmental taxonomies of antisocial behavior and prior studies of specialization and versatility in crime and delinquency over the life course (Moffitt, 1993, 2007; Patterson Yoerger, 1997; Sullivan et al., 2009). Importantly, these studies consider specialization or versatility over a long time span (from childhood into adulthood), in contrast to our focus on engagement in one versus multiple types of delinquency within a short time span (a prior year). Our interest is in identifying whether youth are more likely to engage in multiple types of serious delinquency–and especially particular combinations of serious delinquency such as drug selling and serious violence– during a time period when they are gang members than they do in time periods when they are not gang members. Even with these different objectives, our study is relevant to this literature on developmental taxonomies, and we made several analytic decisions so that our findings might be maximally informative. A central feature of such taxonomies is distinction between youth whose antisocial behavior starts early and persists over time (i.e., “early onset” and “life-course persistent” delinquents) and youth who exhibit antisocial behavior only during adolescence (i.e., “adolescence-limited” delinquents; Moffitt, 1993, 2007). Importantly, this perspective recognizes general developmental trends in antisocial behavior, including elevation for all youth during adolescence due, for example, to increases in peer influence. One hypothesis we draw from this perspective is that whereas all adolescents may be vulnerable to joining gangs and engaging in any patterns of delinquency associated with gang membership, the early starting boys (who were already antisocial early in childhood) should have greater risks for gang membership and concomitant behaviors, a hypothesis that we test with interactions described below. We also document general developmental trends by examining the prevalence of gang membership and serious delinquency patterns over time expecting to see peaks for all youth during adolescence. We furthermore set up our analyses to examine the intersection of developmental and contextual risks. As noted above, our data cover a historical time period during which gangNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptJ Res Adolesc. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 June 01.Gordon et al.Pageactivity and related serious delinquency rose and fell across the nation, including in our study city of Pittsburgh. The boys in our study experienced this epoch at different ages, because they were drawn from two distinct cohorts. The youngest cohort was ages 12 to 16 at the middle of the 1990s, the approximate peak of the crack cocaine epidemic, whereas the boys in the oldest cohort were ages 19 to 23 at mid-decade. Given their different ages in this historical period, we anticipated that cohort might moderate both general developmental trends and associations between our focal variables and outcomes. That is, the peak in gang activity and associated patterns of serious delinquency might occur at different ages for the two cohorts and the strength of the ga.., violence only) as gang members. It is also the case that prior variable-oriented studies have typically used all non-gang youth as a reference group, and it is possible that gang-involved youth differ less from other boys who are delinquent but not in gangs. Also relevant to our study are previous developmental taxonomies of antisocial behavior and prior studies of specialization and versatility in crime and delinquency over the life course (Moffitt, 1993, 2007; Patterson Yoerger, 1997; Sullivan et al., 2009). Importantly, these studies consider specialization or versatility over a long time span (from childhood into adulthood), in contrast to our focus on engagement in one versus multiple types of delinquency within a short time span (a prior year). Our interest is in identifying whether youth are more likely to engage in multiple types of serious delinquency–and especially particular combinations of serious delinquency such as drug selling and serious violence– during a time period when they are gang members than they do in time periods when they are not gang members. Even with these different objectives, our study is relevant to this literature on developmental taxonomies, and we made several analytic decisions so that our findings might be maximally informative. A central feature of such taxonomies is distinction between youth whose antisocial behavior starts early and persists over time (i.e., “early onset” and “life-course persistent” delinquents) and youth who exhibit antisocial behavior only during adolescence (i.e., “adolescence-limited” delinquents; Moffitt, 1993, 2007). Importantly, this perspective recognizes general developmental trends in antisocial behavior, including elevation for all youth during adolescence due, for example, to increases in peer influence. One hypothesis we draw from this perspective is that whereas all adolescents may be vulnerable to joining gangs and engaging in any patterns of delinquency associated with gang membership, the early starting boys (who were already antisocial early in childhood) should have greater risks for gang membership and concomitant behaviors, a hypothesis that we test with interactions described below. We also document general developmental trends by examining the prevalence of gang membership and serious delinquency patterns over time expecting to see peaks for all youth during adolescence. We furthermore set up our analyses to examine the intersection of developmental and contextual risks. As noted above, our data cover a historical time period during which gangNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptJ Res Adolesc. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 June 01.Gordon et al.Pageactivity and related serious delinquency rose and fell across the nation, including in our study city of Pittsburgh. The boys in our study experienced this epoch at different ages, because they were drawn from two distinct cohorts. The youngest cohort was ages 12 to 16 at the middle of the 1990s, the approximate peak of the crack cocaine epidemic, whereas the boys in the oldest cohort were ages 19 to 23 at mid-decade. Given their different ages in this historical period, we anticipated that cohort might moderate both general developmental trends and associations between our focal variables and outcomes. That is, the peak in gang activity and associated patterns of serious delinquency might occur at different ages for the two cohorts and the strength of the ga.

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