There is also evidence for the involvement of hypercholesterolemia in the formation of hard exudates in diabetic retina, with potential negative effects on disease progression

marrow from PPARa+/+ mice at day 0 and after 7 days of culture. At day 7, cells displaying a double labeling for Sca-1/CD31, Sca-1/CD45, Sca-1/CD14 and F4/80/CD31 were significantly increased when compared to cells at day 0. Also, Sca-1/Flk-1 and CD133/Flk-1 cells were slightly increased when compared to cells at day 0. P,0.05, P,0.01, P,0.001 vs isolated cells at day 0. In vivo MatrigelH plug assay For in vivo studies of bone marrow-derived cell-induced angiogenesis, isolated bone marrow-derived cells from WT mice were incubated in the absence or in the presence of MPs isolated from PPARa+/+ or PPARa2/2 mice for 7 or 15 days. MatrigelH plugs were prepared on ice by mixing 500 mL of MatrigelH with recombinant bFGF and bone marrow-derived cells treated or untreated with MPs. This mixture was injected subcutaneously on the back of WT mice. At day 7, MatrigelH plugs were removed and homogenized in lysis buffer and incubated for 24 hour at 4uC Western blot showing that, after 7 days of culture, EPCs undergoing differentiation express PPARa. MPs treatment of August 2010 | Volume 5 | Issue 8 | e12392 MPs-PPAR & Endothelial Cells EPCs had no effect on PPARa expression compared with control indicating that of PPARa transfer did 25581517 not take place. GS 5816 customer reviews protein expression was normalized by b-actin. Flow cytometric analysis of EPC differentiation showed that PPARa activation, a specific PPARa agonist) increased significantly Sca-1+/Flk-1+ cells indicating an increased differentiation. Treatment of EPCs isolated from PPARa2/2 with PPARa agonist had no effect on EPC differentiation in vitro. Sca-1+/Flk-1+ percentage of cells isolated from PPARa2/2 was not modified in the presence of MPsPPARa+/+. P,0.05 vs untreated cells. representative of at least 4 independent experiments for each condition. Found at: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012392.s003 Acknowledgments We thank L. Preisser and J. Daligault from Service Commun de Cytometrie et d’Analyses Nucleotidiques from Institut Federatif de Recherche 132 for their assistance in q-PCR quantification and R. Filmon and R. Mallet from Service Commun d’Imageries et d’Analyses Microscopiques and E. Lauret for help with microscopy analysis. We thank Pr. Ismail Laher for critical reading and English corrections. Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: MCM. Performed the experiments: TB STC. Analyzed the data: TB STC RA MCM. Wrote the paper: TB RA MCM. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 11 August 2010 | Volume 5 | Issue 8 | e12392 MPs-PPAR & Endothelial Cells 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. suppression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. J Immunol 171: 19603. Hunter MP, Ismail N, Zhang X, Aguda BD, Lee EJ, et al. Detection of microRNA expression in human peripheral blood microvesicles. PLos One 3: e3694. Deregibus MC, Cantaluppi 21885866 V, Calogero R, Lo Iacono M, Tetta C, et al. Endothelial progenitor cell derived microvesicles activate an angiogenic program in endothelial cells by a horizontal transfer of mRNA. Blood 110: 2440448. Hanley K, Jiang Y, He SS, Friedman M, Elias PM, et al. Keratinocyte differentiation is stimulated by activators of the nuclear hormone receptor PPARalpha. J Invest Dermatol 110: 36875. Kaplanski C, Pauley CJ, Griffiths TG, Kawabata TT, Ledwith BJ Differentiation of rat oval cells after activation of peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor alpha43. Cancer Res 60: 58087. Wang CH, Ciliberti N, Li SH, Szmitko PE, Weisel RD, et al. Rosiglitazone