Ia and Sickness BehaviorFigure 1. Schematic diagram showing the mechanism of action

Ia and Sickness BehaviorFigure 1. Schematic diagram showing the mechanism of action of the Tat-MyD88 and Tat-TLR4 peptides and their efficacy in preventing protein interactions in vivo. A. The peptides are directed against regions of the TLR4 receptor 22948146 and MyD88 TIR domain, thereby interfering with the interaction of these two POR 8 custom synthesis proteins. LPS Chebulagic acid web treatment has been shown to increase TLR4 and MyD88 binding leading to the activation of MAP kinases and NFkb modulation of TNF-a. Thus the peptides may be effective in blocking downstream signalling to MAP kinases and TNF-a. B,C. 2-photon images of hippocampal tissue following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in the mouse reveals that dansylated Tat peptide can be observed in brain cells. D When i.p. injected, Tat-MyD88 but not Tat-scram reduced co-immunoprecipitation of TLR4 and MyD88 from brain tissue. E Densitometry quantification of co-immunoprecipitated protein normalized to immunoprecipitated protein. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060388.gLPS. Microglia in the deeper healthy parts of brain slices were observed to have normal morphology using TPLSM, with ramified processes. Careful handling of acute slices ensured that only cells at the surface (,10 um) of the acute slice appeared to be affected by the slicing process, and in the depths at which we imaged neurons and astrocytes were healthy, and microglia did not appear activated. Under control conditions, microglia in acutely prepared brain slices exhibit the typical ramified morphology of resting microglia with numerous long branches, and multiple filopodia [22] (Figure 3A) similar to their appearancein vivo [23]. 15481974 Staining of fixed tissue has shown that microglia in vivo acquire an amoeboid shape in response to brain injuries or to immunological stimuli such as LPS [24]. The morphological changes in microglia reflect profound functional changes in these cells because it is known that the release of cytokines and other signalling factors into the surrounding tissue [25] is enhanced when microglia acquire amoeboid morphology [24]. Using timelapse TPLSM, we observed the progression of LPS-induced morphology changes in large fields of view where multiple microglia were visible (Movie S1). Within 10 min we observedMicroglia and Sickness BehaviorFigure 2. Time course of kinase activation and TNF-a formation following LPS treatment, and the inhibition by Tat-MyD88 and TatTLR4. A. Representative blots showing P-p38 MAPK and P-JNK rapidly increased in brain tissue following LPS treatment. GAPDH was monitored as a loading control. B,C. Quantification of the increased P-p38 MAPK and P-JNK levels over 60 minutes following LPS treatment. D-F. P-p38 MAP kinase and P-JNK increases from LPS were attenuated by Tat-MyD88 and Tat-TLR4. D. Representative blots of kinase activation following various treatments. E. Quantification of P-p38 MAPK normalized to GAPDH levels. F. Quantification of P-JNK normalized to GAPDH levels. G,H. LPS treatment increased TNF-a levels, and this increase was blocked by Tat-TLR4 and Tat-MyD88. Quantification of TNF-a levels using ELISA in acute brain slice (G) parallels results found in whole brain lysates of injected animals (H). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060388.gMicroglia and Sickness BehaviorFigure 3. Time course of LPS-induced microglia morphology changes visualized using 2-photon imaging and the block by Tat-TLR4 and Tat-MyD88. A. Series of images at 0, 40 and 80 minutes following application of LPS showing the progression to amoeboid.Ia and Sickness BehaviorFigure 1. Schematic diagram showing the mechanism of action of the Tat-MyD88 and Tat-TLR4 peptides and their efficacy in preventing protein interactions in vivo. A. The peptides are directed against regions of the TLR4 receptor 22948146 and MyD88 TIR domain, thereby interfering with the interaction of these two proteins. LPS treatment has been shown to increase TLR4 and MyD88 binding leading to the activation of MAP kinases and NFkb modulation of TNF-a. Thus the peptides may be effective in blocking downstream signalling to MAP kinases and TNF-a. B,C. 2-photon images of hippocampal tissue following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in the mouse reveals that dansylated Tat peptide can be observed in brain cells. D When i.p. injected, Tat-MyD88 but not Tat-scram reduced co-immunoprecipitation of TLR4 and MyD88 from brain tissue. E Densitometry quantification of co-immunoprecipitated protein normalized to immunoprecipitated protein. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060388.gLPS. Microglia in the deeper healthy parts of brain slices were observed to have normal morphology using TPLSM, with ramified processes. Careful handling of acute slices ensured that only cells at the surface (,10 um) of the acute slice appeared to be affected by the slicing process, and in the depths at which we imaged neurons and astrocytes were healthy, and microglia did not appear activated. Under control conditions, microglia in acutely prepared brain slices exhibit the typical ramified morphology of resting microglia with numerous long branches, and multiple filopodia [22] (Figure 3A) similar to their appearancein vivo [23]. 15481974 Staining of fixed tissue has shown that microglia in vivo acquire an amoeboid shape in response to brain injuries or to immunological stimuli such as LPS [24]. The morphological changes in microglia reflect profound functional changes in these cells because it is known that the release of cytokines and other signalling factors into the surrounding tissue [25] is enhanced when microglia acquire amoeboid morphology [24]. Using timelapse TPLSM, we observed the progression of LPS-induced morphology changes in large fields of view where multiple microglia were visible (Movie S1). Within 10 min we observedMicroglia and Sickness BehaviorFigure 2. Time course of kinase activation and TNF-a formation following LPS treatment, and the inhibition by Tat-MyD88 and TatTLR4. A. Representative blots showing P-p38 MAPK and P-JNK rapidly increased in brain tissue following LPS treatment. GAPDH was monitored as a loading control. B,C. Quantification of the increased P-p38 MAPK and P-JNK levels over 60 minutes following LPS treatment. D-F. P-p38 MAP kinase and P-JNK increases from LPS were attenuated by Tat-MyD88 and Tat-TLR4. D. Representative blots of kinase activation following various treatments. E. Quantification of P-p38 MAPK normalized to GAPDH levels. F. Quantification of P-JNK normalized to GAPDH levels. G,H. LPS treatment increased TNF-a levels, and this increase was blocked by Tat-TLR4 and Tat-MyD88. Quantification of TNF-a levels using ELISA in acute brain slice (G) parallels results found in whole brain lysates of injected animals (H). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060388.gMicroglia and Sickness BehaviorFigure 3. Time course of LPS-induced microglia morphology changes visualized using 2-photon imaging and the block by Tat-TLR4 and Tat-MyD88. A. Series of images at 0, 40 and 80 minutes following application of LPS showing the progression to amoeboid.

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