Of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) increased in the mammary gland and decreased

Of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) Title Loaded From File increased in the mammary gland and decreased in adipose tissue [41]. LPL hydrolyzes chylomicrons and VLDL to remove triglycerides from the circulation and provide fatty acids to different tissues. The net result of the changes of LPL activity during lactation is that the triglycerides available in the circulation are directed to the mammary gland, rather than to adipose tissue to support milk production [42]. Although both the liver and the adipose tissue are capable of de novo fatty acid synthesis, the mammary gland is the main producer of fatty acids in this physiological period [26]. Additionally, the pattern of phosphorylation of AMPK is increased during lactation in this tissue. These results suggest that the role of adipose tissue in this period is to activate the process of lipolysis in order to provide fatty acids to the mammary gland for the synthesis of triglycerides in milk. In conclusion, although the mammary gland performs a metabolic “switch” in the transition from gestation to lactation, regardless of the DP/DCH ratio, other organs, such as the liver and adipose tissue, do respond to the different proportions of DP/ DCH consumed and make the necessary adaptations to supply nutrients to the mammary gland to sustain milk synthesis during lactation.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: ART NT. Performed the experiments: LAVV AMLB. Analyzed the data: LAVV ART AMLB NT. Wrote the paper: LAVV ART NT.
Bayesian Mixture Models for Assessment of Gene Differential Behaviour and Prediction of pCR through the Integration of Copy Number and Gene Expression Data?Filippo Trentini1, Yuan Ji2 *, Takayuki Iwamoto3, Yuan Qi4 , Lajos Pusztai5, Peter Muller1 University Centre of Statistics in the Biomedical Sciences, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, 2 Center for Clinical and Research Informatics, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois, United States of America, 3 Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan, 4 Division of 18055761 Quantitative Sciences, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America, 5 Chief of Breast Medical Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, 6 Department of Mathematics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, United States of AmericaAbstractWe consider modeling jointly microarray RNA expression and DNA copy number data. We propose Bayesian mixture models that define latent Gaussian probit scores for the DNA and RNA, and integrate between the two platforms via a regression of the RNA probit scores on the DNA probit scores. Such a regression conveniently allows us to include additional sample specific covariates such as biological conditions and clinical outcomes. The two developed methods are aimed respectively to make inference on differential behaviour of genes in patients showing different subtypes of breast cancer and to predict the pathological complete response (pCR) of patients borrowing strength across the genomic platforms. Posterior inference is carried out via MCMC simulations. We demonstrate the proposed methodology using a published data set Title Loaded From File consisting of 121 breast cancer patients.Citation: Trentini F, Ji Y, Iwamoto T, Qi Y, Pusztai L, et al. (2013) Bayesian Mixture Models for Assessment of Gene Differential Behaviour and Prediction of pCR through the Integration of Copy Number and Gene Expression Data. PLoS ONE 8(7): e68071. doi:.Of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) increased in the mammary gland and decreased in adipose tissue [41]. LPL hydrolyzes chylomicrons and VLDL to remove triglycerides from the circulation and provide fatty acids to different tissues. The net result of the changes of LPL activity during lactation is that the triglycerides available in the circulation are directed to the mammary gland, rather than to adipose tissue to support milk production [42]. Although both the liver and the adipose tissue are capable of de novo fatty acid synthesis, the mammary gland is the main producer of fatty acids in this physiological period [26]. Additionally, the pattern of phosphorylation of AMPK is increased during lactation in this tissue. These results suggest that the role of adipose tissue in this period is to activate the process of lipolysis in order to provide fatty acids to the mammary gland for the synthesis of triglycerides in milk. In conclusion, although the mammary gland performs a metabolic “switch” in the transition from gestation to lactation, regardless of the DP/DCH ratio, other organs, such as the liver and adipose tissue, do respond to the different proportions of DP/ DCH consumed and make the necessary adaptations to supply nutrients to the mammary gland to sustain milk synthesis during lactation.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: ART NT. Performed the experiments: LAVV AMLB. Analyzed the data: LAVV ART AMLB NT. Wrote the paper: LAVV ART NT.
Bayesian Mixture Models for Assessment of Gene Differential Behaviour and Prediction of pCR through the Integration of Copy Number and Gene Expression Data?Filippo Trentini1, Yuan Ji2 *, Takayuki Iwamoto3, Yuan Qi4 , Lajos Pusztai5, Peter Muller1 University Centre of Statistics in the Biomedical Sciences, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, 2 Center for Clinical and Research Informatics, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois, United States of America, 3 Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan, 4 Division of 18055761 Quantitative Sciences, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America, 5 Chief of Breast Medical Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, 6 Department of Mathematics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, United States of AmericaAbstractWe consider modeling jointly microarray RNA expression and DNA copy number data. We propose Bayesian mixture models that define latent Gaussian probit scores for the DNA and RNA, and integrate between the two platforms via a regression of the RNA probit scores on the DNA probit scores. Such a regression conveniently allows us to include additional sample specific covariates such as biological conditions and clinical outcomes. The two developed methods are aimed respectively to make inference on differential behaviour of genes in patients showing different subtypes of breast cancer and to predict the pathological complete response (pCR) of patients borrowing strength across the genomic platforms. Posterior inference is carried out via MCMC simulations. We demonstrate the proposed methodology using a published data set consisting of 121 breast cancer patients.Citation: Trentini F, Ji Y, Iwamoto T, Qi Y, Pusztai L, et al. (2013) Bayesian Mixture Models for Assessment of Gene Differential Behaviour and Prediction of pCR through the Integration of Copy Number and Gene Expression Data. PLoS ONE 8(7): e68071. doi:.

Leave a Reply