Hat “everything seems to become specifically in the proper place,since it needs to be.” One particular patient (patient ,Picard,even explained that,though listening to a discussion among several folks during an ecstati aura,he felt as though he had a sudden complete understanding from the topic,”as an access to the resolution.” We hypothesize that within the ecstatic auras the mechanisms of interoceptive prediction error generation are blocked,the comparator between the actual as well as the predicted state no longer functions,and that there is absolutely no additional mismatch. This may well lead for any few seconds to a pathologicallyinduced (epileptic) “stable state” with no any generated prediction error,without the need of ambiguity,causing a feeling of certainty and intense serenity and inner peace (Picard Picard and Kurth.Heightened Self wareness and Atmosphere PerceptionsSalience and Practical experience of TimeEcstatic seizures are dominated by a feeling of a conscious selfpresence,characterized by a heightened selfawareness,as well as a feeling of union using the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor 2 planet,the “All,” with breakdown of your barrier among the topic and surroundings. The anterior insula participates inside the selfreflective network,maintaining a coherent firstperson point of view,around the basis of its connections toward inferior parietal lobe and temporoparietal junction (Augustine Craig,b; Modinos et al. Dennis et al. Ionta et al. Somatosensory stimuli,as other internal and external stimuli,are processed inside the posterior insula and cognitively integrated additional anteriorly inside the insula (Craig. An ictal hyperactivation of this area will alter this processing and might provoke abnormal unpleasant feelings (Isnard et al,or in rare circumstances very pleasant ones (Williams Stefan et al,with at times even a feeling of sensory overload,as some patients report. Possibly in connection with its part in interoception and autonomic function,the anterior insula is especially sensitiveFrontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience www.frontiersin.orgFebruary Volume ArticleGschwind and PicardAnterior Insula and Ecstatic SeizuresFIGURE Illustration on the networks implicated in salience processing,as obtained by the metaanalysis PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24687012 tool Neurosynth.org (Yarkoni et al,based on the results of published studies,applying the only keyword “salience” in forward inference,and displayed on a template anatomical T image with Zvalues of to (employing the Mango computer software package. The resulting significant regions (p FDR corrected) interestingly comprise 4 networks: Yellow: anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula (AI) represent the salience network (Seeley et al b). Orange: the extended insular network consisting of amygdala (AM),ventral striatum (vS),periaqueductal gray (PAG),and dorsomedial thalamus (dmTHal). Green: the PCCVMPFC represents the default mode network (Greicius et al. Blue: the frontoparietal executive manage network (Corbetta and Shulman Fox et al. The salience network is believed to switch back and forth involving the default mode network and executive manage network (Menon and Uddin Uddin.to salient internal and environmental events,i.e behaviorallyrelevant stimuli,collectively using the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in the “salience network” (Seeley et al b; Eckert et al. Menon and Uddin Wiech et al. Uddin. This network detects and evaluates salient signals so as to constantly resolve uncertainty and adapt the behavior,by driving autonomic reflexes (which in turn engage feelings). As already pointed out in Bliss,Clarity,and Intense SerenityEmotion Regulati.