Tion and characterization. Siparuna guianensis was collected within the counties of Gurupi (11345 latitude S. 49407 longitude W) and Formoso do Araguaia (11748 latitude S. 49144 longitude W), State of Tocantins, Central Brazil. The collections were authorized by the Brazilian National Council of Scientific and Technological Improvement (CNPq. n0105802013). Taxonomic identification was carried out and confirmed by professionals at the herbarium from the Federal University of Tocantins (Porto Nacional, TO, Brazil), exactly where the samples have been deposited below the reference number 10.496. The leaves of S. guianensis were collected in the mornings and utilized to extract the critical oils by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus as detailed elsewhere24. The GC-MS analysis was performed on a Shimadzu QP-2010 instrument (Kyoto, Japan) operating at 70 eV having a DB-5MS methylpolysiloxane column (30 m 0.25 mm 1.0 m; J W Scientific Inc. Folsom. USA). The injection split ratio was 1:50 throughout the run (60.three min) and helium was utilized as carrier gas at a flow rate of 1.50 mLmin (53.5 Kpa). The constant linear velocity was established at 42 cms as well as the injector temperature at 250 . The temperature of the transfer line was 260 . The GC-FID evaluation was performed on a Shimadzu GC-2010 Plus instrument (Kyoto, Japan), having a flame Ethoxyacetic acid Cancer ionization detector (FID), along with a CP-Sil column 8 CB with methylpolysiloxane as the stationary phase (30 m 0.25 mm 0. 25 m (Varian Inc., Palo Alto, USA). The injection split ratio was 1:50 flow division throughout the run (60.3 min), and nitrogen was utilized as carrier gas with continuous flow of 1.5 mLmin, an injector temperature of 250 , along with a detector temperature of 260 . The GC column oven temperature went from 70 to 180 at a price of four min, having a hold time of 27.five min followed by a heating ramp of 25 min to 250 , in addition to a final hold time of 30 min27. The constituents in the oil have been identified making use of typical reference compounds and by matching the mass spectra fragmentation pattern with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Mass Spectra Library stored in the GC-MS database. Insects.Two populations of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Bt resistant and susceptible) and one of many velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) had been applied in this study. The population on the fall armyworm resistant for the Bt toxins Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab and also a susceptible population of your velvetbean caterpillar were provided by the Insect-Plant Interaction Laboratory with the Federal University of Vi sa (Vi sa, MG, Brazil). The susceptible population with the fall armyworm was offered by the Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in the Federal University of Tocantins (Gurupi, TO, Brazil).Material and Methodslarvae within a entirely randomized experimental design and style. We employed impregnated filter paper (9 cm in diameter) because the surface for the critical oil (contact) exposure. The critical oil of S. guianensis was dissolved inside a mixture of water and 2 (vv) in the detergent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to acquire the preferred concentrations. Filter paper disks were impregnated with 300 of this solution and placed covering the inner walls of a 100 mL plastic cup, which received 25 larvae with the velvetbean caterpillar or perhaps a single larva of the armyworm (to avoid cannibalism). Every bioassay was replicated four times, and every single replicate contained 25 velvetbean caterpillars or 16 armyworms. Larval mortality was recorded afte.