Ted beans, and, for the duration of bean fermentation, anthocyanins hydrolyze into a sugar and cyanidin, which benefits in reduced anthocyanin content material [64]. Research into unfermented cocoa beans have identified two main forms of polyphenols: catechins and cinnamic acids (and their derivatives). Caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid have already been detected Bcl-xL Inhibitor list inside the tegument, given that this tissue exhibits a robust presence of cells with lignified walls, and these acids are involved in lignin synthesis. However, catechin and epicatechin are mainly located inside the cotyledon, specifically in significant vacuolated polyphenolic cells [5, 65]. Moreover, the storage process has an impact around the content material of phenolic compounds in raw cocoa beans. Pod storage time, i.e., the time the pods are stored soon after harvesting but just before splitting them, is usually maximum 2 weeks. Pulp preconditioning causes reductions within the content of polyphenolic compounds; nonetheless, a study reported that 5, ten and 15 days of pod storage didn’t have a important impact on (-catechin [66]. Other authors recommend that cocoa pods should not beM. Gil et al.Heliyon 7 (2021) eFigure 2. Filters employed in the search equation to choose the articles for the literature assessment.stored for more than 7 days, considering that it could influence the fermentation course of action and degrade polyphenols [67]. 3.1.2. Fermented matrix The content material of several polyphenols in cocoa beans is connected using the degree of fermentation [68]. Within the postharvest processes, oxidation reactions, both enzymatic and not enzymatic, have the largest effect on polyphenol reduction [10]. Throughout the fermentation period, polyphenol compounds like anthocyanins are hydrolyzed to anthocyanidins and sugars such as arabinose and galactose. In turn, the sugars polymerize with catechins to form complex tannins. Anthocyanins generally disappear through the fermentation approach; hence, anthocyanin content material is employed as an indicator of the degree of cocoa bean fermentation [10, 66]. Additional, the color change of cocoa beans is really a sign of fermentation, caused by polyphenol oxidase, which HDAC4 Inhibitor drug converts o-dihydroxyphenols to o-benzoquinones; this final results in browning, which affects each the flavor and also the color of the item [10, 66]. Given that raw cocoa beans are astringent due to the presence of polyphenols and tannins, loss of bitterness and astringency occurs in the course of fermentation because polyphenols migrate out from the cotyledon and are then oxidized [69].Lowered polyphenol content material throughout fermentation of raw cocoa beans has been evidenced within the study by Prayoga, Murwani, and Anwar (2013), exactly where the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of lowquality cocoa beans have been higher in unfermented (0.162 g GAE/g) than in partially fermented (0.052 g GAE/g) samples [64]. Quite a few mechanisms are usually employed to limit the effects of fermentation on polyphenol content reduction, including techniques including water blanching, which inactivates polyphenol oxidase, therefore rising polyphenol retention throughout fermentation [64]. Menon et al. (2015) studied the impact of water blanching on polyphenol content material working with two temperatures (80 C and 90 C) and 3 treatment times (five, ten and 15 min). In their case, polyphenol retention was the highest (119.four mg GAE/g) when the blanching was performed at 90 C for 5 min on a fresh sample. Similarly, when they treated fermented beans, the highest polyphenol retention occurred with blanching at 90 C for five min (69.9 mg GAE/g), followed by the.