D in Cartool three.43 (D. Brunet, Functional Brain Mapping Laboratory, Geneva, Switzerland) employing previously acquired electrode-position files for the 64-channel human and 22-channel NHP caps. Estimation of intracranial generators for MMN and P3a was performed employing Cartool 3.43 computer software with LORETA. Neural generators have been estimated across two time intervals per species: human (5688 ms and 20856 ms) and NHP (4820 ms and 10448 ms) corresponding for the MMN and P3a components, respectively. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank Steven Hillyard, Antigona Martinez, and Marla Zinni for worthwhile α adrenergic receptor Antagonist manufacturer contributions to design and style and information analysis; Thomas Liu and Valur Olafsson for help in EEG setup; and Dinh Diep and Aaron Cortez for assistance in animal training and care. Also, we thank Denis Brunet for assistance with building NHP inverse solutions. Stimulus presentation for this experiment was performed using the Cogent 2000 and Cogent graphics computer software (MATLAB toolbox), created by teams in the Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience and University College London. Cartool application (http://brainmapping.unige.ch/cartool) was programmed by Denis Brunet (Functional Brain Mapping Laboratory) and supported by the Center for Biomedical Imaging of Geneva and Lausanne.1. Rissling AJ, Light GA (2010) Neurophysiological measures of sensory registration, stimulus discrimination, and selection in schizophrenia sufferers. Curr Leading Behav Neurosci 4:28309. 2. Javitt DC, Zukin SR (1991) Recent advances within the phencyclidine model of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 148(ten):1301308. 3. Umbricht D, et al. (2000) Ketamine-induced deficits in auditory and visual contextdependent Met Inhibitor Formulation processing in healthy volunteers: Implications for models of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57(12):1139147. 4. Garrido MI, Kilner JM, Kiebel SJ, Friston KJ (2007) Evoked brain responses are generated by feedback loops. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(52):209610966. five. Sutton S, Braren M, Zubin J, John ER (1965) Evoked-potential correlates of stimulus uncertainty. Science 150(3700):1187188. six. Baribeau-Braun J, Picton TW, Gosselin JY (1983) Schizophrenia: A neurophysiological evaluation of abnormal info processing. Science 219(4586):87476. 7. Wynn JK, Sugar C, Horan WP, Kern R, Green MF (2010) Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functioning in schizophrenia patients. Biol Psychiatry 67(ten):94047. 8. van der Stelt O, Belger A (2007) Application of electroencephalography to the study of cognitive and brain functions in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 33(4):95570. 9. Jahshan C, et al. (2012) Cross-diagnostic comparison of duration mismatch negativity and P3a in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Bipolar Disord 14(3):23948. ten. Sereno MI, Tootell RBH (2005) From monkeys to humans: What do we now know about brain homologies Curr Opin Neurobiol 15(2):13544. 11. N t en R, et al. (2011) The mismatch negativity: An index of cognitive decline in neuropsychiatric and neurological diseases and in ageing. Brain 134(Pt 12):3435453. 12. Pekkonen E, Jousm i V, Reinikainen K, Partanen J (1995) Automatic auditory discrimination is impaired in Parkinson’s disease. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 95(1):472. 13. Vecchio F, M ttS (2011) The use of auditory event-related potentials in Alzheimer’s illness diagnosis. Int J Alzheimers Dis 2011:653173. 14. Garrido MI, Kilner JM, Stephan KE, Friston KJ (2009) The mismatch negativity: A overview of underlying mechanisms. Clin Neurophysio.