Interest statement None declared.References:1. Diz P, Scully C, Sanz M: Dental implants in the medically compromised patient. J Dent, 2013; 41(3): 19506 two. Steigenga JT, al-Shammari KF, Nociti FH et al: Dental implant design and its relationship to long-term implant results. Implant Dent, 2003; 12(4): 3067 3. Olivares-Navarrete R, Raines AL, Hyzy SL et al: Nav1.1 Inhibitor Compound osteoblast maturation and new bone formation in response to titanium implant surface options are lowered with age. J Bone Miner Res, 2012; 27(eight): 17733 4. Sakka S, Baroudi K, Nassani MZ: Things related to early and late failure of dental implants. J Investig Clin Dent, 2012; three(four): 2581 five. Kim WJ, Hyun CY, Kim HK: Fatigue strength of ultrafine-grained pure Ti just after serious plastic deformation. Scripta Mater, 2006; 54: 17450 six. Zhao YH, Liao XZ, Jin Z et al: Microstructures and mechanical properties of ultrafine grained 7075 Al alloy processed by ECAP and their evolutions throughout annealing. Acta Mater, 2004; 52: 45899 7. Shin DH, Kim I, Kim J et al: Semiatin SL. Microstructure improvement through equal-channel angular pressing of titanium. Acta Mater, 2003; 51: 983This operate is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs three.0 Unported LicenseIndexed in: [Current Contents/Clinical Medicine] [SCI Expanded] [ISI Alerting System] [ISI Journals Master List] [Index Medicus/MEDLINE] [EMBASE/Excerpta Medica] [Chemical Abstracts/CAS] [Index Copernicus]HYPOTHESISDeng Z. et al.: Lanthanum-containing hydroxyapatite coating on ultrafine-grained titanium… Med Sci Monit, 2014; 20: 163-8. Stolyarov VV, Zhu YT, Alexandrov IV et al: Grain refinement and properties of pure Ti processed by warm ECAP and cold rolling. Mater Sci Eng A, 2003; 343: 430 9. Park JW, Kim YJ, Park CH et al: Enhanced osteoblast response to an equal channel angular pressing-processed pure titanium substrate with microrough surface topography. Acta Biomater, 2009; five(8): 32720 ten. Kim TN, Balakrishnan A, Lee BC et al: In vitro biocompatibility of equal channel angular processed (ECAP) titanium. PKCĪ² Modulator MedChemExpress Biomed Mate, 2007; 2(three): S1170 11. Tong WP, Tao NR, Wang ZB et al: Nitriding iron at decrease temperatures. Science, 2003; 299(5607): 6868 12. Li L, Jin H, Li J: A comparison of lanthanum contained rinse on acid resistant abilities to human enamel and root surface. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, 2001; 10(4): 3292 13. Liu D, Yuan S, Wang X: A comparative study regarding the influence of lanthanum, calcium, fluoride on plaque pH. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2001; 19(four): 2102 14. Zhang JC, Zhang TL, Xu SJ et al: Effects of lanthanum on formation and bone-resorbing activity of osteoclast-like cells. J Uncommon Earths, 2004; 22(6): 8915 15. Hardie MJ, Raston CL, Salinas A: A three,12-connected vertice sharing adamantoid hydrogen bonded network featuring tetrameric clusters of cyclotriveratrylene. Chem Commun (Camb), 2001; (18): 18501 16. Guo DG, Wang AH, Han Y et al: Characterization, physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of La-incorporated apatites. Acta Biomater, 2009; five(9): 35123 17. Song WH, Jun YK, Han Y et al: Biomimetic apatite coatings on micro-arc oxidized titania. Biomaterials, 2004; 25(17): 33419 18. Kim HW, Koh YH, Li LH et al: Hydroxyapatite coating on titanium substrate with titania buffer layer processed by sol-gel approach. Biomaterials, 2004; 25(13): 25338 19. Ravichandran R, Ng C, Liao S L et al: Biomimetic surface modification of titanium surfaces for early cell capture by sophisticated electrospinning. Biomed Mat.