E nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and mRNA expression of TNF- and IL-1 have been attenuated by paroxetine pretreatment. Analyses in signaling pathways demonstrated that paroxetine led to suppression of LPS-induced JNK1/2 activation and baseline ERK1/2 activity, but had small effect on the activation of p38 and p65/NF-B. Interference with particular inhibitors revealed that paroxetine-mediated suppression of NO production was by way of JNK1/2 pathway when the cytokine suppression was by way of each JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 pathways. Moreover, conditioned media culture showed that paroxetine suppressed the microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. Conclusions: Paroxetine inhibits LPS-stimulated microglia activation by way of collective regulation of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 signaling. Our final results indicate a potential function of paroxetine in neuroprotection via its anti-neuroinflammatory impact apart from targeting for depression. Keywords: Paroxetine, Microglia, Lipopolysaccharide, Neuroinflammation, MAPKIntroduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) would be the second most common neurodegenerative illness CD20 Storage & Stability characterized by a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. While the etiology of PD as well as the underlying mechanisms for disease improvement stay incompletely understood, escalating proof has suggested that inflammatory processes Correspondence: zhangxiong98@gmail; jianhong.zhu@gmail Equal contributors 1 Department of Neurology Geriatrics, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000, China two Division of Preventive Medicine, Wenzhou Health-related University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035, Chinaplay a essential part in the pathogenesis of PD [1-3]. Microglia would be the resident macrophages on the central nervous system and act as the prime effector cells in mediating neuroinflammation [4,5]. It has been suggested that inflammatory mediators for instance nitric oxide (NO), TNF-, and IL-1 derived from microglia are involving inside the progression of neuronal cell death in PD [6,7]. Certainly, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inflammation elicitor has generally been utilized to produce phenotypes of PD in animals [8,9]. Consequently, modulation of microglial activation and its production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines would be a promising approach to alleviate the progression of PD.?2014 Liu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This can be an Open Access article distributed below the terms with the Creative Commons Attribution License (creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, offered the original perform is adequately credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies towards the information made accessible within this post, unless otherwise stated.Liu et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2014, 11:47 jneuroinflammation/content/11/1/Page two ofCell viability ( )100 80 6020 0 PAR 0 0.1 0.two 1Figure 1 Cell viability of BV2 cells treated with paroxetine. Cells were treated with 0, 0.1, 0.two, 1, five or ten M of paroxetine for 24 hours. Cell viability was expressed as percentage of the handle (0 M), which was set as 100 . Values are Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger Biological Activity suggests ?SE of three independent experiments. P 0.05 versus the control; PAR, paroxetine.Paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is often employed as a first-line remedy inside the treatment of depression because of its fewer unwanted side effects and decrease toxicity compared with other antidepressants [10]. Taking into consideration depression is.