Al., 1988 Isman, 2005 Isman, 2005 Chen et al., 1995 Feng et al., 1995 Qi et al., 2003 Powell et al., 1991 Leatemia and Isman, 2004 Jimenez et al., 1997a,b Krishna-Kumari et al., 2003 Krishna-Kumari et al., 2003 Xie et al., 1994 Xie et al., 1994 Xie et al., 1994 Xie et al., 1994 Xie et al., 1994 Xie et al., 1994 Wheeler et al., 2001 Arnason et al., 1987 Caballero et al., 2008 Bogorni and Vendramim, 2005 Bogorni and Vendramim, 2005 Kubo and Klocke, 1982a,b Wu et al., 2005 Mode of action GI GI GI FD,EI FD,EI GI EI EI,OI GI OI GI GI GI GI GI GI GI FD GI Authors Vanucci et al., 1992 Nakatani et al., 2004 Leatemia and Isman, 2004 Senthil-Nathan, 2006 Senthil-Nathan and Sehoon, 2006 Atwal and Pajni, 1964 Schmidt et al., 1997, 1998 Schmidt et al., 1997 Nakatani, 1999 Gajmer et al., 2002 Breuer and Devkota, 1990 Juan et al., 2000 Dilawari et al., 1994 Mikolajczak et al., 1989 Gebre-Amlak and Azerefegne, 1999 Brunherotto and Vendramim, 2001 Breuer and Devkota, 1990 Breuer and Loof, 1998 Kroschel and Koch,EI, Enzyme Inhibition; GI, Growth Inhibition; FD, Feeding Deterrence; NPI, Nutritional Physiology Inhibition; OI, Oviposition Inhibition.affected nutritional physiology of each H. armigera and S. litura. The compound aglaroxin A Neuregulin-3/NRG3 Protein Gene ID identified from A. elaeagnoidea was potent antifeedent against both Lepidopteran species (Figure 1O). The proved that the reduction in development from the larvae was not completely as a consequence of antifeedent, but partly resulting from the toxic effects on the aglaroxin A compound. Qi et al. (2003) have beenFrontiers in Physiology | Invertebrate Physiologyidentified compound munroniamide from Munronia henryi and which has proved antifeedent activity against Pieris brassicae L. Apart from the well-known antifeedant activity, azadirachtin also showed sturdy insect growth regulating activity against a lot of insects (Schmutterer, 1990; Mordue and Blackwell, 1993). Since azadirachtin did not decrease feeding in P. brassicae pupae, theDecember 2013 | Volume 4 | Write-up 359 |Senthil-NathanEffect of Meliaceae on insectO OC-OCHOOHOCHoooOHOOOoOO CH C – O three CH O 3 C O Fig.1A.AzadirachtinoOH HOO CH C – OOoO O1B. SalaninOOH Fig. 1C. DeacetylgeduninOCHOHOOHOC=OOOOOOO OA C Fig. 1D. GeduninO OA CFig. 1F. DeacetylnimbinOH COOH 3 Fig. 1E. 17-HydroxyazadiradioneH3 COcOHO CHOOOOHOHO CHO OOH 3 C COOO O H3 C C OHO HOOOHHOOHOHH3 C COOHOOHHOH3CCH2(CH3)CHCOOHCHOFig. 1G. Toosendanin.Fig. 1H. TrichilinFig. 1I. NimbinO OHO OHOOCHOOCOOCHCHOHHHOMeOHO OOHHOORO OO AcOHOOOOH HCHOOOHFig. 1J. MeliarteninFig. 1K. CedrodorinFig. 1L. KhayanolideFIGURE 1 | Continuedfrontiersin.orgDecember 2013 | Volume four | Write-up 359 |Senthil-NathanEffect of Meliaceae on insectOHONOHO AcOOOHOOO MeO2COH OH OHAcO O OHOOOO OOH OHOOOHOROHOOAcOHFig. 1M. TabulalinOAcFig. 1N. TabulalidesFig. 1O. AglaroxinOOH H3 C CH 3 H3 C H CH 3 HO H 3C H CH three CH 3 C CH3 OHH3C H3 C H CH 3 H COOHFig. 1Q. Beddomei LactoneCHOOCHOH3 CFig. 1P. 3 beta-25,26-trihydroxycycloartaneH3CO O O CH2 CH3 CH3 H O OH O CHO OO OOO O O CHCH3 H3C OH OH3CFig. 1R. PrieurianinFIGURE 1 | Chemical structure of secondary metabolites identified from Meliaceae plants.growth retardation and deformities have been the direct impact of azadirachtin and not as a consequence of lack of meals (Kraus and Grimminger, 1981). Nutritional analyses M-CSF Protein Gene ID revealed that the insect development inhibitory and antifeedant effects have been independent of each and every other and relative for the level of therapy with (Ruscoe, 1972; Koul and Isman, 1991). In addition, 48 h feeding of on foliage treated at five?0 ppm appeared.