Product Name :
Mouse anti VCAM-1

Description :
| Clone 4B9 | Isotype IgG1 | Product Type Primary Antibodies | Units 0.1 mg | Host Mouse (Balb/c) | Species Reactivity Human | Application Flow Cytometry Immunohistochemistry (frozen) Immunoprecipitation

Background :
4B9 is a Mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibody geneRated by immunization of Balb/c mice with Human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVE) that were non-enzymatically harvested after stimulation for 24h with recombinant Human (rh) TNF-α (10 ng/ml). Splenocytes were fused with the NS-1 nonsecretory murine myeloma line.

Source :
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is induced on Human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVE) by recombinant Human tumor necrosis factor – α (rh TNF-α), rh interleukin-1 (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is involved in adherence of lymphocytic cell lines to HUVE. VCAM-1 is only minimally expressed on unstimulated endothelium. Molecular cloning and sequencing of VCAM-1 predicts a 69-kDa core protein with 6 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, if the protein is fully glycosylated a mature protein of about 90kDa is yielded. VCAM-1 mediates a component of the adherence of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBL) to rh TNF-stimulated HUVE, this CD18 independent mechanism of lymphocyte adherence to cytokine stimulated endothelium may be an important pathway of lymphocyte emigRation at sites of inflammation and immune reaction. <

Product :
Each vial contains 100 ul 1 mg/ml purified monoclonal antibody in PBS containing 0.09% sodium azide. Formulation: Each vial contains 100 ul 1 mg/ml purified monoclonal antibody in PBS containing 0.09% sodium azide.

Specificity :
The antibody binds exclusively to the cytokine-induced endothelial cell adhesion protein, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1).

Applications :
4B9 is suitable for immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, immunocytochemistry and immuno-histochemistry on frozen tissues and flow cytometry. Optimal antibody dilution should be determined by titration; recommended range is 1:25 – 1:200 for flow cytometry, and for immunohistochemistry with avidin-biotinylated Horseradish peroxidase complex (ABC) as detection reagent, and 1:100 – 1:1000 for immunoblotting applications.

Storage :
The antibody is shipped at ambient temperature and may be stored at +4°C. For prolonged storage prepare appropriate aliquots and store at or below -20°C. Prior to use, an aliquot is thawed slowly in the dark at ambient temperature, spun down again and used to prepare working dilutions by adding sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2). Repeated thawing and freezing should be avoided. Working dilutions should be stored at +4°C, not refrozen, and preferably used the same day. If a slight precipitation occurs upon storage, this should be removed by centrifugation. It will not affect the performance or the concentration of the product.

Caution :
This product is intended FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY, and FOR TESTS IN VITRO, not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures involving humans or animals. It may contain hazardous ingredients. Please refer to the Safety Data Sheets (SDS) for additional information and proper handling procedures. Dispose product remainders according to local regulations.This datasheet is as accurate as reasonably achievable, but our company accepts no liability for any inaccuracies or omissions in this information.

References :
1. Carlos. T., Schwartz. B., Kovach. N., Yee. E., Rosa. M., Osborn. L., Chi-Rosso. G., Newman. B., Lobb. R., et al. (1990). Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mediates lymphocyte adherence to cytokine-activated cultured Human endothelial cells Blood. 76(5) 965-70. 2. Ockenhouse, C.F., Tegoshi, T., Maeno, Y., Benjamin, C., Ho, M., Kan, K.E., Thway, Y., Win, K., Aikawa, M. and Lobb, R.R. (1992). Human vascular endothelial cell adhesion receptors for Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes: roles for endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. J Exp Med. 176, 1183-9. 3. Bacchi, C.E., Marsh, C.L., Perkins, J.D., Carithers, R.L. Jr, McVicar, J.P., Hudkins, K.L., Benjamin, C.D., Harlan, J.M., Lobb, R. and Alpers, C.E. (1993). Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) in liver and pancreas allograft rejection. Am J Pathol. 142, 579-91. 4. Pinola, M., Saksela, E., Tiisala, S. and Renkonen, R. (1994). Human NK cells expressing alpha 4 beta 1/beta 7 adhere to VCAM-1 without preactivation. Scand J Immunol. 39, 131-6. 5. Chuluyan, H.E., Osborn, L., Lobb, R. and Issekutz AC. (1995). Domains 1 and 4 of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD106) both support very late activation antigen-4 (CD49d/CD29)-dependent monocyte trans-endothelial migRation. J Immunol. 155, 3135-4.

Antibodies are immunoglobulins secreted by effector lymphoid B cells into the bloodstream. Antibodies consist of two light peptide chains and two heavy peptide chains that are linked to each other by disulfide bonds to form a “Y” shaped structure. Both tips of the “Y” structure contain binding sites for a specific antigen. Antibodies are commonly used in medical research, pharmacological research, laboratory research, and health and epidemiological research. They play an important role in hot research areas such as targeted drug development, in vitro diagnostic assays, characterization of signaling pathways, detection of protein expression levels, and identification of candidate biomarkers.
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