Inding amongst allergens and IgE. This effect was consistent with all the reduce in potentially allergenic proteins and improve in constituent fragments detected within the fermented bee pollen. Collectively, these final results suggest that allergenicity of bee pollen could possibly be reduced through fermentation by S. cerevisiae.Intervention of S. cerevisiae in Amino Acid MetabolismIn addition to proteins, we detected the metabolites that accumulated to substantially diverse levels (P 0.05; Fold Change2) amongst fermented and unfermented bee pollen (Table 1). KEGG pathway enrichment analysis recommended that probably the most considerably enriched metabolites were involved in 3 principal pathways: (1) biosynthesis of amino acids, (two) valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, and (three) phenylalanineFrontiers in Nutrition | frontiersin.orgJanuary 2022 | Volume 9 | ArticleYin et al.Bee Pollen Allergens IdentificationTABLE 1 | The metabolic pathway evaluation base on the changed metabolites in fermented bee pollen by S. cerevisiae. Pathway Biosynthesis of amino acids Compound L-Valine L-Isoleucine two,3-Dihydroxy-3methylbutyric acid L-Tryptophan L-Phenylalanine N2-Acetyl-L-ornithine Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis L-Isoleucine L-Valine 2,3-Dihydroxy-3methylbutyric acid 2-Isopropylmaleate Phenylalanine metabolism Phenylacetic acid Succinic N-Acetyl-Lphenylalanine L-Phenylalanine implies P 0.01; means P 0.001.KEGG ID C00183 C00407 CFormula C5 H11 N O2 C6 H13 N O2 C5 H10 OMass 117.0789 131.0943 134.Score (DB) 88 88FC ([Y] Vs [C]) 4.637 10.098 37142.Regulation Up Up UpP-value C00078 C00079 C00437 C00407 C00183 CC11 H12 N2 O2 C9 H11 N O2 C7 H14 N2 O3 C6 H13 N O2 C5 H11 N O2 C5 H10 O204.0903 165.0794 174.1007 131.0943 117.0789 134.98 99 99 88 884.Protein S/PROS1 Protein Formulation 535 68.Calnexin Protein Gene ID 297 341288.PMID:35567400 970 ten.098 four.637 37142.Up Up Up Up Up Up C02631 C07086 C00042 C03519 CC7 H10 O4 C8 H8 O2 C4 H6 O4 C11 H13 N O3 C9 H11 N O158.0576 136.0520 118.0271 207.0894 165.99 85 98 9933276.340 5980.313 9.355 16.499 68.Up Up Up Up Up FIGURE 5 | The changed metabolic pathways resulting from S. cerevisiae fermentation in B. napus bee pollen depending on KEGG pathway analysis. The red frame represented that the content of those highlighted metabolites was considerably enhanced within the fermented bee pollen when compared with the unfermented bee pollen. The colour bar from blue to red indicated the metabolite level from low to higher.metabolism (Figure five). These metabolites had been all identified in higher concentrations in the fermented bee pollen, which recommended that fermentation promoted the biosynthesis of L-valine, L-isoleucine, L-tryptophan, and L-phenylalanine.The branched-chain amino acids L-valine and L-isoleucine are vital to humans, which can sustain blood glucose level, provide energy, and guard muscle function (391). The aromatic amino acids L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine,Frontiers in Nutrition | frontiersin.orgJanuary 2022 | Volume 9 | ArticleYin et al.Bee Pollen Allergens Identificationwhich can’t be synthesized by humans but are crucial for protein synthesis, are identified to regulate the levels of insulin-like development factor-1 and leptin (42). On top of that, two,3-Dihydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid could be converted into 2-oxoisovalerate through dehydration, which can be a substrate for L-valine and 2-isopropylmaleate production by transaminase. 2-Isopropylmaleate is involved inside the synthesis of L-leucine, a different branched-chain amino acid that promotes myofibrillar protein synthesis and metabolism (43). Fermentation apparent.